The world is filled with beautiful women. They are prominetly featured in television shows, movies and magazines all the time.

Here you have the top 100 most beautiful women of all time from movies,television and fashion, according to experts.

But, Who are They?, Who is each one?
Guess! I suggest you play with me to discover them!
Who is your favourite? Who would you add in this list?

I propose you to guess who is each one girl!
Take a Look! And Enjoy!

Did you have enjoyed watching these women?
How many girls do you know from this photos?
And how many girls don´t you know?
If you don´t know any girl, Ask your friends!
Leave no doubt!

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Do you find it cool and useful?
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Is there a desert you wouldn´t walk across to spend
five minutes with either of these beauties?

In appreciation for your help, I invite to watch videos of this girls
And if you don´t know any of these girls or you would put any other girl, let me your e-mail in the text of the donation, and the number or numers of the girls you don´t know, and I will answer you.

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If I have to live on a deserted island these are the women
with whom I would like to live!

Click In This Picture
And Enjoy!

In love our problems
dissolve and disappear.

Thanks to the following people ...

Abigail Clayton Adajja Adara Michaels Adrea Adams Adriana Adriana Sage Aileen Ferrari Aja Alana Alex Dane Alex Foxe Alex Greco Alex Jordan Alex Storm Alex Taylor Alexa Alexa Park Alexandra Nice Alexandra Silk Alexandria Alexandria Karlsen Alexandria Quinn Alexis Amore Alexis Christian Alexis DeVell Alexis Firestone Alexxx Knight Ali Moore Alicia Monet Alicia Rickter Alicia Rio Alicyn Sterling Alisha Klass Aliyah Yi Allison Kilgore Allison Springs Alliya Allysin Chains Allysin Embers Alyssa Allure Alyssa Alps Alyssa Jarreau Alyssa Love Alyssa Malone Amanda Amanda Addams Amanda Morrison Amanda Rae Amanda Rain Amanda Shear Amanda Steele Amanda Stone Amanda Taylor Amanda Victoria Amber Amber Hunt Amber Lynn Amber Michaels Amber Smith Amber Woods Amia More Amy Amy Rogers Amytheist Anastasia Blue Andrea Andrea Amore Andrea True Andrea Wolfe Angel Angel Ash Angel Baby Angel Bust Angel Cash Angel Collins Angel Cruz Angel Desmond Angel Hart Angel Kelly Angel La Monica Angel West Angela Ambrus Angela Austin Angela Baron Angela D'Angelo Angela Faith Angela Little Angela Milini Angela Summers Angelica Bella Angelica Bright Angelica Delasol Angelica Fox Angelica Sin Angelique Angelique Pettijohn Anikka LaRue Anisa Anita Anita Blonde Anita Cannibal Anita Dark Anita Rinaldi Aniya Anna Anna Amore Anna Belle Anna Malle Anna Nicole Smith Anna Romero Anna Ventura Annabel Chong Annabelle Dayne Annah Marie Annah Marie Goddard Annette Haven Annie Anderson Annie Sprinkle Antoinette April Adams April Flowers April Maye April Rayne April West Arcadia Arcie Miller Ariana Ariel Daye Ariel Knight Arlene Baxter Arlene Manhatton Artemis Antone Ashlee Colors Ashley Adams Ashley Dawn Ashley Lauren Ashley Nicole Ashley Renee Ashley Sage Ashley Shye Ashley Winters Ashlyn Gere Ashton Moore Asia Carrera Aspen Brock Athena Star Atlanta Rizzen Atlantis Aubrey Nichols Aurora Aurora Cortez Aurora Snow Autumn Day Ava Fabian Ava Lustra Avalon Avalon Axinia Azazell Star Azlea Antistia Baby Blue Baby Doll Baby Doll Baby Face Baby Girl Bailey Montaine Bambi Bambi Bambi Woods Bamboo Barb Angel Barb Doll Barbara Alyn Woods Barbara Barton Barbara Bourbon Barbara Dare Barbara Doll Barbara Moore Barbara Rose Barbarella Barbie Bell Barbie Blazer Barbii Barett Moore Barocca Beata Beatrice Valle Becky Delos Santos Becky Savage Becky Sunshine Bella Donna Bella Rio Belladonna Beth Anne Bethany Hartford Betty Betty Boobs Beverlee Hills Beverly Bliss Beverly Glenn Bianca Jordan Bianca Trump Bionca Blair Segal Blake Blaze Blondi Blondie Anderson Bobbi Bliss Bolivia Samsonite Bonita Bonita Saint Bonnie Holliday Bonnie Marino Bonnie Michaels Brandi Brandi Brandt Brandi Lyons Brandi Wine Brandy Alexandre Brandy Bosworth Brazil Breezy Lane Briana Banks Brianna Lee Bridget Bridget Powers Bridgete Monroe Bridgette Belle Bridgette Kerkove Brigette Aime Brigette Monet Brigitte Maier Britt Morgan Brittania Brittany Brittany Andrews Brittany O' Connell Brittany O'neil Brittany Saks Brittany Stryker Brittany York Bronze Brooke Ashley Brooke Bennett Brooke Campbell Brooke Fields Brooke Harlow Brooke Hunter Brooke Lane Brooke Waters Brooke West Brooke Young Brooklyn Rhodes Buffy Davis Bunny Bleu Bunny Luv Busty Belle Busty Dusty C. Blue C.C. Moore C.J. Bennett C.J. Lang Cady Cantrell Calli Cox Cameo Camille Candi Daze Candi Roxxx Candida Royale Candie Evans Candy Andes Candy Apples Candy Barr Candy Canteloupes Candy Cotton Candy Hill Candy Samples Candy Vegas Candye Kane Cappuccino Capri Cameron Cara Lott Caramel Careena Collins Caressa Savage Carla Ferrari Carly Sparks Carmel Lover Carmel St. Clair Carmen Carmen Berg Carmen Diego Carmen Electra Carol Clearwater Carol Connors Carol Cross Carol Cummings Carol Ficatier Carol Titian Carolina Caroline Ambrose Caroline Cage Carolyn Monroe Carrie Stevens Carrie Westcott Carrie Yazel Casey Casha Rae Allias Cassandra Cassandra Curves Cassandra Dark Cassandra Knight Cassandra Lear Cassandra Leigh Cassidey Cassidy Cassidy Cassie Cassie Nova Cassy Carson Catalina Lamour Catherine Kelly Cathy Patrick Cathy St. George Celeste Celine Deavoux Chablis Champagne Champagne Pendarvis Chandler Chanel Price Channone Chantay Chante Chantilly Lace Charisma Charlene Aspen Charli Charli Waters Charlie Charlie Angel Charlie Latour Charlise Charlotte Kemp Charmane Star Chasey Lain Chastity Chayse Manhattan Chaz Vincent Chelle Chelly Supreme Chelsea Blake Chelsea Blue Chelsea Lynx Chelsea Manchester Chelsea Sinclaire Chennin Blanc Cher Butler Cherelle Cheri Janvier Cheri Lai-me Cheri Lynn Cheri Taylor Cherokee Cherry Chen Cherry Lee Cherry Mirage Cherry Rain Cheryl Bachman Cheryl Dynasty Chessie Moore China Barbi China Dahl China Lee China Mai Chippella Chloe Chloe (s/m) Chloe Vevrier Chloey Adams Chocolate Chris Collins Chrissy Ann Chrissy Beauchamp Chrissy Canfield Chrissy Ly Chrissy Max Chrissy Sparks Christgen Wolf Christi Lake Christina (Spanish) Christina Angel Christina Applelay Christina De'Oar Christina Leardini Christina Woods Christy Christy Ann Christy Canyon Christy Thom Cicciolina Ciera Brooks Cindy Cindy Brown Cindy Jones Cindy LeBare Cindy Rich Cinna-Bunz Cinnamon Claire Taylor Claire Tyler Clarissa Climax Clarisse Claudia Claudia Adkins Claudia Chase Claudia de Corazon Cleo Cleopatra Coca Cody Fairchild Cody Nichole Colleen Brennan Connie Peterson Connie Young Constance Money Copper Penny Coral Sands Coralie Corey Cori Cori Gates Corinna Harney Corky James Corrine Williams Cortknee Courtney Courtney Cameron Cricket Cris Cassidy Crown Princess Crystal Breeze Crystal Dawn Crystal Dawn Crystal Gold Crystal Knight Crystal Storm Crystal Sync Crystal Wilder Cumisha Amado Cyndee Summers Cynthia Brooks Cynthia Hammers D.J. Alden Dahlia Dahlia Grey Daisy Daisy Chain Daisy Love Dakota Dalila Dallas Dallas D'Amour Dallas Miko Dalny Marga Dana Dylan Dana Lynn Dana Plato Dane Harlow Danelle Folta Daniella Rush Danielle Danielle Rogers Danielle St. John Danni Ashe Danyel Cheeks Daphne Daphnee Lynn Duplaix Darby Lloyd Rains Darcy DeMoss Darian LaQuoix Darla Crane Darla Derriere Dascha Davia Ardell Dawn Dawn Burning Dawn Devine Dawn Phoenix Dayton Rains Deanna Brooks Debbie Anson Debbie Does Debette Debi Diamond Debi Johnson Deborah Driggs Deborah Wells Debra Lynn Dee Dee Dee Reeves Deelicious Milano Deena Duos Deidre Holland Deja Deja Blew Delaney Daniels Delia Delilah Dawn Demi Fairbanks Demi Rhodes Demi Willis Denise Stevens Denni O. Desiree Cousteau Desiree Dupree Desiree Fox Desiree Lane Destini Lane Destiny Deva Station Deven Davis Devin Devin DeRay Devinn Lane Devon Devon Daniels Devon Shire Devon Shore Diamond Forever Diamond LaRocce Dian Parkinson Diana Devoe Diana Holt Diana Lee Diana Richards Dina DeVille Dina Jewel Dina Pearl Dita Von Teese Diva Dixie Downs Dolly Golden Dolly Sharp Dominica Leoni Dominique Winters Domonique Simone Donita Donna Anne Donna D'Errico Donna Perry Donna Smith Donna Warner Doomy Moore Dora Dorian Grant Dorothy Dorothy LeMay Draghixa Dru Berrymore Druanne Dusty Rose Dyanna Lauren Dynamite Dynasty Dynasty Ebony Ebony Ayes Ebony Smiles Eden Eden Rae Effie Elaine Elan Carter Elisa Bridges Elizabeth Cox Elizabeth Starr Elizabeth X Elke Jeinsen Elle Devine Elle Rio Eloise Broady Elska Emerald Estrada Emerald Star Emiko Emily Arth Emily Hill Emily Jewel Envy Erica Boyer Erica Dahm Erica Everest Erika Bella Erika Eleniak Erika Lockett Europe DiChan Eva Eva Allen Eva Blonde Eva Flowers Eva Roberts Eve Eve Eden Evelyn Stone Exotica Faith Faith Stevens Fallon Farrah Farrah Fawcett Fawn Miller Fawna MacLaren Felecia Ryder Felicia Felicia Fox Felizia Felony Fiero Fifi Bardot Flame Flick Shagwell Flora Florence Flower Fonda French Foxy Francesca Le Frankie LahRue Frankie Layne Frankie Leigh Friday Gabriel Pontello Gabriella Gabriella Bond Gabriella Gotti Gabrielle Gabrielle Scream Gail Gail Force Gauge Gaya Gayle Michelle Gayle Sterling Gaynor Gem Georgette Neale Georgette Sanders Georgina Spelvin Gia Gianna Amore Gidget the Midget Gidgette Gillian Bonner Gina Gina Carrera Gina Delany Gina Lynn Gina Martell Gina Roma Gina Ryder Gina Vice Ginger Bush Ginger Hill Ginger Lynn Ginger Paige Gisselle Lynn Gloria Leonard Golden Jade Goldie Goldie Star Greta Greta Carlson Gwen Summers Gyonggi H. C. Hailey Davidson Haley Hunter Haley Starr Halli Aston Halo Hanna Harley Raines Harmony Grant Haven Hayley Lynn Heather Hart Heather Hunter Heather Kozar Heather Lee Heather Lere Heather Lyn Heather Lynn Heather St. Clair Heather Torrance Heather Travis Heather Wayne Heaven Leigh Heide Von Hunter Heidi Dahlton Heidi Mark Heidi Nelson Helen Bed Helen Duval Helena Helga Sven Helle Michaelsen Hillary Summers Hitomi Kaiman Holli Woods Holly Black Holly Body Holly Heat Holly Hollywood Holly Hummer Holly Joan Hart Holly Landers Holly Mason Holly McCall Holly Ryder Holly Witt Honey Honey Wilder Hot Chocolate Houston Hyapatia Lee Ice Idalis Hunter Iera Ikea Ildiko Imani Inari Vachs India India Allen Inga Drozdova Iroc Isabella Camille Isis Nile Ivy Crystal J.R. Carrington Jacey Allen Jackie Jacqline Jacqueline Brooks Jacqueline Lick Jacqueline Lorians Jacqueline Sheen Jada Fire Jade Jade East Jade Marcela Jade Wong Jaguar Jaija Jamela Jami Ferrell Jamie Fisher Jamie Lee Jamie South Jamie Summers Janai Janet Janet Jacme Janet Littledove Janey Lamb Janey Robbins Janine Jasmine Aloha Jasmine Johnson Jasmine St. Clair Jasper Jay Milo Jazmine Jazz Jazzmine Jazzmine Rose Jean Afrique Jean Jennings Jeanie Rivers Jeanna Fine Jeannie Pepper Jello Jenna Jameson Jenna Wells Jennie Joyce Jennifer Allan Jennifer Jackson Jennifer Lavoie Jennifer Leigh Jennifer Miriam Jennifer Noxt Jennifer Steele Jennifer Steele Jennifer Stewart Jennifer Welles Jennifer West Jennifer Worthington Jenny Baxter Jenny Blair Jenny Fields Jenny Lee McKenzie Jenny McArther Jenny McCarthy Jenteal Jessica Brittian Jessica Chambers Jessica Darling Jessica Drake Jessica Foxxx Jessica Hahn Jessica James Jessica Jewel Jessica Lee Jessica Wilde Jessie James Jessie St. James Jewel DeNyle Jewel Valmont Jill Anderson Jill Kelly Joanna Storm Joey Karson Johnni Black Jolanda Egger Jordan Hart Jordan Justice Jordan Lee Jordan McKnight Jordan St. James Josephine Josephine Carrington Joy Karins Juanita Judith Bella Juli Ashton Julia Ann Julia Larot Julia Parton Julia Perrier Julia Schultz Juliana Dominguez Julianna Sterling Julianna Young Julianne Julianne James Julie Bond Julie Clarke Julie Lynn Cialini Julie Meadows Julie Rage Juliet Juliet Anderson Juliette Carelton June Lee Justa Dream Justice Howard Justine Reage Justine Romee K.C. Valentine K.C. Williams Kai Kaiko Kaila Kailee Arkin Kairee Kaitlyn Ashley Kaitlyn Hill Kalani Kali Kalin Olson Kalli Styles Kami Boh Kamiko Kanako Kandi Connor Kandy Barbour Kaoru Kara Nile Karen D'Or Karen Foster Karen Lancaume Karen McDougal Karen Summer Karen Witter Kari Fox Karin Taylor Karin Van Breeschooten Kary Evers Kascha Kasorn Swan Kassandra Jones Kate Moore Katherine Hushaw Kathleen Gentry Kathleen Kristal Kathy Marceau Kathy Willets Katie Katie Gold Katie June Katie Thomas Katja Kean Kay London Kay Parker Kayla Kleevage Kaylan Nicole Kaylynn Keisha Kelli Cage Kelli Dean Kelli Houston Kelli Richards Kelli Sparks Kelli Thomas Kelly Kelly Blue Kelly Gallagher Kelly Havel Kelly Jaye Kelly Jean Kelly Michaels Kelly Monaco Kelly Nichols Kelly O'Dell Kelly O'rion Kelly Royce Kelly Tough Kelly Trump Kelsey Heart Kelsey Sheen Kendal Marx Kendra Jade Kennedy Keo Keri Windsor Kerri Downs Kerri Kendall Kia Kianna Bradley Kiki Kiki Kiki Kiki Daire Kim Acosta Kim Chambers Kim Donley Kim Eternity Kim Evenson Kim Kitaine Kim Le Kim McArthur Kim Morris Kim Saunders Kimber West Kimberly Kimberly Conrad Kimberly Cummings Kimberly Dawn Kimberly Dreams Kimberly Kupps Kimberly Kyle Kimi Ji Kimi Lixx Kira Kira Kener Kirsty Waay Kiss Kitana Steele Kitten Kitten Natividad Kitty Cat Kitty Fox Kitty Monroe Kitty Shane Kitty Yung Kiva Klara Kinsoki Kobe Tai Kokoa Kona Carmack Krista Lane Krista Maze Kristara Barrington Kristarrah Knight Kristie Allen Kristie Leigh Kristina Evol Kristina St. James Kristina West Kristine DeBell Kristy Love Krysti Lynn Krysti Myst Krystina King Kurious Kylie Ireland Kym Wilde Kyoto Gee La Dawn La Tigra La Toya Jackson Lacey Rose Lacy Diamond Lacy Duvall Lady Antoinette Lady Berlin Lady Paree Lady Stephanie LaGina Valentina Lana Burner Lana Luster Lana Sands Lana Woods Laura Angel Laura Black Laura Cover Laura Lazarre Laura Megan Laura Palmer Laura Richmond Laure Sinclair Laurel Canyon Lauren Brice Lauren Hall Lauren Montgomery Laurie Cameron Laurie Carr Laurie Smith Laurie Wood Layla Layla Jade Lea De Mae Lea Martini Lea Stevenson Leah Santiago Leanna Foxxx Leanna Heart Leanne Lovelace Leanni Lei Lee Carroll Leena Lei Lei Lani Leigh Brooke Leila Leilani Wong Leisa Sheridan Lene Hefner Lenora Bruce Leslie Bovee Leslie Glass Leslie Rene Leslie Winston Letha Weapons Lexi Erickson Lexi Leigh Lexis Dee Lexus Lia Baren Lido Lil' Ass Lil' Bit Lil' Cinderella Lili Marlene Lili Xene Lilly Linda Diego Linda Lovelace Linda Shaw Linda Thoren Linda Wong Linnea Quigley Lisa Ann Lisa Be Lisa Belle Lisa De Leeuw Lisa Dergan Lisa Lawrence Lisa Lennox Lisa Lipps Lisa Marie Scott Lisa Matthews Lisa Phillips Lita Chase Little Oral Annie Liz Leighton Liz Randall Liz Stewart Liza Harper Lizzy Borden Loanne Lois Ayers Lola Lola Lane Lolo Ferrari Loni Sanders Lonnie Lonny Chin Lori Lori Michaels Lorraine Day Lorraine Olivia Lorrin Mick Lotta Top Louise Armani Louise Sherry Love Lee Lovely Lovette Loyla Roberts Lucy Cooper Lydia Chanel Lynden Johnson Lynn LeMay Lynn Ray Lynn Suzu Lynn Thomas Lynn True Lynne Austin Lynx Dyan Lysa Thatcher Mackenna Macy Madame Butterfly Madelyn Knight Madison Madison Avenue Maggie Mae Mahogany Mai Le Mai Lin Makala Malia Malina Malitia Mandi Wine Maren Beautte Margo Stevens Mari Ange Maria Checa Maria De Sanchez Maria Luisa Gil Maria Marina Maria Schauss Maria Tortuga Mariah Mariah Wind Mariana Marianne Gravatte Marie Mason Marie Sharp Marilyn Chambers Marilyn Jess Marilyn Martin Marilyn Rose Marine Cartier Marissa Betancourte Marissa Malibu Marissa Monet Marlena Marlene Willoughby Marliece Andrada Martina Brandt Martine Grimes Mary Jane Marylin Star Maureen Spring Mauvais De Noir Maya Chavez Maya Chung Mazzie Page McKayla McKayla Matthews Meagan Reed Meekah Megan Leigh Meka Meka Johnson Melanie Anton Melanie Moore Melanie Stone Melicia Melinda Masglow Melissa Evridge Melissa Hill Melissa Holliday Melissa Marcus Melissa Mendez Melissa Monet Melody Kiss Melody Love Menage Trois Mercedez Lynn Meridian Meriesa Arroyo Merle Michaels Mesha Mesha Lynn Mia Ciccero Mia Domore Mia Powers Mia Smiles Mia Sonata Michaela Adkins Michaela James Michelle Michelle Monroe Michelle Raven Micki Lynn Midora Midori Mika Tan Mikayla Shore Miki Le Mikki Mikki Taylor Miko Lee Mila Mimi Miyagi Mimi Morgan Mina Mindy Rae Minka Mira Mirage Miriam Van Breeschooten Miss Pomodoro Missy Missy Warner Misty Blue Misty Dawn Misty Lynn Misty Rain Miya Moana Pozzi Mocha Moet Molina Molly O'Brian Molly Rome Molly Wood Momo Mona Mona Lisa Monica Lopez Monica Mayhem Monica Orisi Monika Monika Sweetheart Monika Taylor Monique Monique Monique Covet Monique DeMoan Monique Hall Monique Perry Moniya Montana Montana Gunn Monti Morelle DeKeigh Morgan Daniels Morgan Fairlane Morgan Fox Morgan Lefay Mowett Mustang Sally Layd Mya Nadia Moore Nadia Nyce Nadine Chanz Nancee Kellee Nancy Suiter Nancy Vee Naomi Natalia Sokolova Natalie Harris Natalie Rose Natasha Natasha Blake Natasha Love Naughtia Childs Nellie Pierce Nena Cherry Neriah Davis Nichole West Nici Sterling Nico Treasures Nicola Nicole Nicole Ann Nicole Black Nicole Douglas Nicole Lace Nicole London Nicole Mitchell Nicole Moore Nicole Sheridan Nicole Wood Nicolette Nicolina Fox Niki Blond Niki Knockers Nikita Nikita Denise Nikita Kash Nikki Anderson Nikki Arizona Nikki Brantz Nikki Charm Nikki Dial Nikki Fairchild Nikki King Nikki Knights Nikki Lynn Nikki Nova Nikki Pink Nikki Randall Nikki Shane Nikki Sinn Nikki Steele Nikki Tyler Nikki Valentine Nikki Wylde Nilli Willis Nina Nina DePonca Nina Ferrari Nina Hartley Nina Suave Nina Whett N'J Debahia Nomi Norma Jeane Nyrobi Knights Obsession Oceane Olga Conti Olinka Olivia Olivia Del Rio Olivia Parrish Olvia Omu'Nique Ona Zee Onyx Ophelia Tozzi P.J. Sparxx Paige Carlson Paige Powers Paige Sinclair Paisley Pamela Anderson Pamela Mann Pamela Stein Pandora Peaks Papillon Papoose Paris Bleau Passion Patricia Kennedy Patricia Lee Patti Davis Patti Petite Patty Breton Patty Wright Paula Brasile Paula Harlow Paula Meadows Paula Prescott Paula Price Payton Fox Peach Peach Puddin Peaches Pearl Essence Pearl Tung Pebbles Penelope Penelope Pumpkins Penny Baker Penny Lane Persia Petra Verkaik Peyton Alexander Phaedra Phoenix Haight Phoenixxx Blaque Phyllisha Anne Pia Reyes Pia Snow Platinum Poison Porsche Lynn Porsha Precious Dimae Precious Jewel Priscilla Taylor Pryce Leigh Purple Passion Rachael Mann Rachel Ashley Rachel Jean Marteen Rachel Love Rachel Ryan Racquel Darrian Racquel Linneau Rainbow Robbins Randee Lee Randi Rage Randi Storm Raquel Raquel Devine Raquel Lace Rasheen Karim-Koram Raven Raven McCall Raven Richards Raylene Raylin Rayne Rayne D'Ance Raysheena Rayveness Rebecca Bardoux Rebecca Ferratti Rebecca Lord Rebecca Ramada Rebecca Steele Rebecca Wild Rebel Dean Regan Starr Regina Bardot Regina Diamond Regina Powers Rene Bond Rene Morgan Rene Summers Renee Foxx Renee LaRue Renee Tenison Rhiannon Rhonda Adams Rhonda Jo Petty Rikki Blake Rikki Harte Rikki Lee Rikki Moans Rikki O'Neal Rita Ricardo Roberta Smallwood Robin Byrd Robin Cannes Rocki Roads Rosa Caracciolo Rose Marie Rossana Doll Rowan Fairmont Roxanne Blaze Roxanne Hall Roxy Rider Ruby Rumika Powers Rustie Rhodes Ryan Conner Saber Sabina Sabrina Sabrina Bliss Sabrina Dawn Sabrina Jade Sabrina Johnson Sabrina Stone Sade Sadie Sexton Sahara Sahara Sands Saki Salacity Samantha Samantha Doran Samantha Fox Samantha Sterlyng Samantha Strong Samantha Style Samantha Torres Samantha York Sana Fey Sandi Beach Sandi Carey Sandi Korn Sandra Nova Sandra Scream Sandy Sandy Dempsey Sandy Summers Sara St. James Sarah Jane Hamilton Sarah Louise Young SaReena Lee Sascha Sasha Sweet Sasha Vinni Saskia Satomi Savannah Scarlett Scharleau Scotti Andrews Seduction Seduction Seka Seleena Steele Selen Selena Selina St. Clair Senneca September Raines Serena Serena Steele Serenity Serina Lewis Sexy Shae Marks Shaena Steel Shai Shakira Shane Shane Tyler Shanna Evens Shanna McCullough Shannon Long Shannon Rush Shannon Tweed Sharlyn Alexander Sharon Kane Sharon Mitchell Sharon Thorpe Sharon Vegas Sharon Wild Sharry Konopski Shaun Michelle Shauna Grant Shauna Sands Shawna Shawna Edwards Shawnee Shawnee Cates Shay Sights Shay Sweet Shay Thomas Shayla Foxx Shayla Heart Shayla LaVeaux Sheena Sheena Chase Sheena Horne Sheila Stanton Sheila Stone Shelby Myne Shelby Stevens Shelli Sheri St. Clair Shonna Lynn Shyanne Sid Deuce Sierra Sierra Silver Forrest Simona Valli Simone Eden Sindee Coxx Sindy Clair Sinnamon Siobhan Hunter Sirena Sky Sky Taylor Skye Blue Skylar Knight Sofia Sofia Ferrari Solveixxx Sonja Redd Sonya Sophia Capri Sophia Rio Sophia Staks Sophie Evans Special Spice Spontaneous Xtasy Stacey Donovan Stacey Nichols Stacey Owen Stacey St. James Stacey Vaughn Staci Lords Stacy Stacy Arthur Stacy Fuson Stacy King Stacy Moran Stacy Sanches Stacy Valentine Star Chandler Star Weatherly Stasha Stefani Weaver Steffi Stephania Stephanie Adams Stephanie Duvalle Stephanie Hart Rogers Stephanie Page Stephanie Rage Stephanie Swift Stevi Secret Stevie Stevie Starr Stevie Taylor Stormy Gale Stormy Wave Sue Nero Summer Summer Cummings Summer Knight Summer Rose Summer Smith Sundae Brunch Sunny Day Sunny MacKay Sunrise Adams Sunset Thomas Sunshine Susan Hart Susan McBain Susanna Britton Susie Mercedes Susie Owens Suzan Nielsen Suzanne St. Lorraine Suzi Simpson Suzi Sparks Suzi Suzuki Suzie Boobies Suzie Mathews Suzy Gato Suzy Mandel Suzy Q Sydney Dance Sydney Steele Sylvia Sylvia Benedict Sylvia Ryder Sylvia Saint Sylvie Syren Syren Smiles T.J. Carson Tabitha Tabitha Cash Tabitha Stern Tabitha Steven Tabitha Stevens Tabitha Taylor Taboo Taija Rae Taj Mahal Talia James Tamara Lee Tamara Longley Tami Monroe Tamia Tammi Ann Tammy Parks Tammy Reynolds Tangerine Tania Russof Tantala Ray Tanya Beyer Tanya Danielle Tanya Devries Tanya Fox Tanya Hansen Tanya La Rivierre Tanya Lawson Tanya Rivers Tanya Summers Tara Tara Aire Tara Collins Tara Flynn Tara Gold Tara Monroe Tara Patrick Taren Steele Tasha Tasha Hunter Tasha Voux Tatiana Tavalia Griffin Tawni Cable Tawni Lyons Tawny Tawny Peaks Tawny Pearl Tawny Rae Taylor Dante Taylor Evans Taylor Hayes Taylor Leigh Taylor Moore Taylor Rose Taylor St. Claire Taylor Wane Taylor Young Teddi Austin Teddi Barrett Teighlor Temptress Tera Heart Teresa Orlowski Tereza Teri Diver Teri Star Teri Weigel Terraine Terri Hall Terry Lynn Doss Tesha Tess Ferre Theresa Roxx Tia Bella Tia Precious Tiana Tianna Scott Tianna Taylor Tiffany Clark Tiffany Lane Tiffany Lords Tiffany Mason Tiffany Million Tiffany Mynx Tiffany Storm Tiffany Taylor Tiffany Towers Tiffany Vionette Tiger Lilly Tigra Timber Timea Timeo Kiss Tina Bockrath Tina Burner Tina Cheri Tina Marie Tina Owen Tina Ross Tina Russell Tina Thomas Tina Tyler Tish Ambrose Tishara Cousino TJ Hart Tobianna Toni James Tonisha Mills Tonja Christensen Topaz Toppsy Curvey Tori Welles Toy Clayton Tracey Adams Tracey Allen Traci Traci Ardell Traci Bingham Traci Lords Traci Prince Traci Topps Tracy Evans Tracy Love Tracy Winn Treasure Tricia Devereaux Tricia Yen Trinity Loren Trish Trixie Tyler Trixxi Starr Tye Tyler Tyler Sweet Tylyn John Tyra Olsen Ulrika Ericsson Uma Unique Unique Love Ursula Moore Uschi Digart Valentina Velasquez Valentine Valeria Valy Verdy Vanda Vanessa Vanessa Blue Vanessa Chase Vanessa Del Rio Vanessa D'Oro Vanessa Gleason Vanessa Roberts Vanity Velvet Venice Kong Venus Venus DeLight Venus Lamour Venuss Veronica Veronica Brazil Veronica Doll Veronica Hart Veronica Sage Vicca Vicky Smith Victoria Andrews Victoria Fuller Victoria Gold Victoria Hill Victoria Lee Victoria Matheson Victoria Paris Victoria Silvstedt Vienna Hall Violet Blue Violet Love Viper Vivian Viviana Vivianne Vivica Vivienne Vixen Wednesday Wendy Wendy Divine Wendy Kaye Wendy Knight Wendy O. Williams Wendy Whoppers Westin Chase Whitney Valentine Whitney Wonders Wildcat Willow Winnie Cooper Winona Winter Winter Lane Xtacee X-Tassy XXXena Yasmine Pendarvis Yoko Yolanda Yui Yumi Lai Yvonne Zara White Zarina Zasu Knight Zelina Zena Zena Fulsome Zina Dean Zoe Zoe Young Zoryna Dreams Zumira

Thanks also to the following people ...

Kay Parker Ellen Brewster Harry Reems Vince Brewster Angel Gloria Jamie Gillis Jerry Tom Byron Mark Brewster Ginger Lynn Allen Stacy as Ginger Shanna McCullough Pam Wilson Ivory Essex Samantha Nikki Randall Leslie as Rachel Whitney Lynn Ray Cody Nicole nips xxx lisa gallery caught actresses michelle celebraty men year heard gemser pierced anne lesbian celiberty yvonne bitch legs megan sophie from blowjob trishelle 2008 wwwcelebrity sarandon victoria international camel elizabeth french out katy heels wendi taylor lee penis leaked best dupre shots body catterfeld bitches english naughty bodies 2009 hard sylvia all model jane talia shower wet sandrelli swimsuit Raven Candy Roxanne Rollan Blonde on beach as Roxanna Rollann Crystal Breeze Jackie as Crystal Braze Ken Starbuck Tom Byron Domination Client Greg Derek Crystal Breeze Victorian woman Venus DeLight Herself Stacey Donovan Sex Ed student Steve Drake Lord Chatsworthy Veronica Hart Dr Ruth Robert Kerman Gerard the photographer kathy hottest supermodel review for flashing kristel redhead singer sexiest hardcore rihanna inthe nicole rebecca mclendoncovey asian cum celebity spanish vanessa vanna fucked sudanese celebrty uncensored erect images carla tiny classic dutch photography hair stefania cumshot posing reality rachel huge breasts bra having cleavage kim top halloween boob high monk catherine hight Constance Rand Laurie Smith Diane Ginger Lynn Allen Gail as Ginger Lynn Stacey helena blood babes red galleries photo young clip latest girls true mattsson edmondson aussie celbrities family indian real british fenech susan laura ass skin babe old girl julie antonelli edie older brandy love celebritiy alonso Donovan Stewardess Paul Thomas Paul Rand Colleen Brennan Woman Trying on Lingerie Jerry Butler Captain Parker Debi Diamond Stewardess as Shelly Rey Sasha Gabor Walter Hibbel Jamie Gillis Mr Margold Gabrielle Behar Marilyn Bunny Bleu Girl Scout as Bunny Blue Larry Harwood Greg Rome Eric Edwards Paul Rosemarie edwige audrina andrea scandal with 70s teen feet hairy amber jennifer teens scene
scenes hirivskaya eugenia head west american pink pamela suzee pokies big pai white celeberity cameltoe celebrety picture tennis diane ashley black fakes madeleine blog celebritie tapes adlon maria clebrity her fox celebirty welch jaime smith alice chelan ahmo gennifer pregnant mature larranaga russo goddess hall butler sunbathing goodwin shows beautiful kate boyer singers dress hawn booty falco olivia valeria something cheri angela goldie bootz Melissa as Rose Marie Danica Rhae Danica Peter North George Christy Canyon Louise Harrison Chanel Lindsay Janey Robbins Andrea Bunny Bleu Kelly Nichols Killer Kristara Barrington Jane Chelsea Blake Martha Taija Rae Wendy Jill Cumer Inmate Joey Silvera Guard Paul Thomas The Warden George Payne Jocko Danica Rhae Mrs Whittaker Susan Hart Becky Raven Claudia Whittaker Athena Star slips pussy videos the and hollywood pic tits clips actress boobs australian movie celbrity women grammer oops video beach fuck celibrity gone elena sarah recent swedish cullen anna carati kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes carter brit conchita comshaw holly mrskin Judy Jones Britany Striker Brittany Striker Brittany Strycker Britany Stryker Brittany Styryker ashleyduprenet really handjob nguyen wendy cock petra lady kiper madison isild lombardo shirt blalock syndrome alex cannatella louise see attractive stiff woman celebritys Sally Whittaker Marc Wallice David as Mark Wallice Craig Roberts Tom Byron Blake Palmer Dick Howard Guard Frank Serrone Candye Kane as Candy Kane Gina Valentino as LaGina Valento Marc Wallice as Marc Wallace Jerry Butler Peter Stacey Donovan Kimo's girlfriend as Ashley Britton Lois Ayres Melanie Jay Serling Barry Brittany Speared 2003 Ultimate Ginger Lynn 2002 Cock Smokers 15 2000 Fire in the Hole 2000 Tasty Treats 1994 Fantasy World 1991 Girls Like Us 1991 Naughty Nymphs 1991 Raunch II 1989 also as Brittany Styryker Terry Raunch 2 USA video box title Submissive Women 1989 Take My Body 1989 Comimg in America 1988 Coming in America USA video box title Get Me While I'm Hot 1988 Outrageous Orgies 2 1988 Sins of Angel Kelly 1988 Soul Games 1988 Banana Splits 1987 Charmed and Dangerous 1987 Honey Buns 1987 Let's Get It On 1987 Alex deRenzy's Let's Get It On USA complete title Pumping Irene II 1987 Restless Passion 1987 Sky Foxes 1987 Switch Hitters 1987 Dolly Tailspin 1987 The Touchables The Men Girls Pay to Touch 1987 Lois California Gigolo USA alternative title Touchables USA alternative title Ginger's Sex Asylum 1986 Rusty All for His Ladies 1986 as Brittany Striker Back Door Bride 1986 Backdoor to Hollywood Part 2 1986 Maggie Woodson Beyond the Casting Couch 1986 Doctor Penetration 1986 Flasher 1986 as Brittany Strycker Isabel Lasse Braun's Flasher USA complete title Hard Ride 1986 Having It All! 1986 I Am Curious Black 1986 Kiss of the Dragon Lady 1986 Lust at Sea 1986 as Britany Striker Lusty Layout 1986 Pumping Irene 1986 Rears 1986 New waitress Super Wrestling Sluts of Hollywood 1986 Super Sluts of Hollywood USA informal short title Takin' It to the Streets 1986 The Brat 1986 Gwen Brat International English title alternative title White Trash 1986 Drug dealer's wife Angel of the Night 1985 Hot Nights at the Blue Note Cafe 1985 The Blue Note Cafe USA alternative title Indecent Itch 1985 Gale Martin Late After Dark 1985 Lucky in Love 1985 Barmaid Sex Life of a Nerd USA video title Tailgunners 1985 as Britany Stryker Talk Dirty to Me One More Time 1985 Virgin Heat 1985 For Your Thighs Only 1984 Dark Chambers 2000 Astrid Rocks Deeper Vol 11 1998 Best of Nina Hartley 1993 Read My Lips No More Bush 1993 All That Glitters 1992 Bad Conduct 1992 The Backdoor Club 1992 2 of a Kind 2 1991 Any Port in the Storm 1991 Body Fire 1991 Dark Corners 1991 Fantasy World 1991 Favorite Endings 1991 Bruce Seven's Favorite Endings USA complete title Imagine 1991 Sins of Tami 1991 The Sins of Tami Monroe USA video box title Snatched to the Future 1991 Michelle Transparent Desires 1991 Amazing Tails 4 1990 Bimbo Bowlers from Boston 1990 Buns N' Roses 1990 Buns & Roses USA video box title Buns and Roses USA video box title Easy Pickin's 1990 Ginger Then and Now 1990 Girls Don't Lie 1990 Girls Gone Bad II The Breakout 1990 Nurse Erica I Said a Butt Light 1990 Night Trips II 1990 Only the Best of Barbara Dare 1990 Passion from Behind 1990 Pump It Up 1990 Tori Welles Exposed 1990 Where the Sun Never Shines 1990 Body Music 1989 Girls Gone Bad 1989 Nurse Head Lock 1989 Sharon Mitchell Non stop 1989 Skin Games 1989 The Wild Brat 1989 Show Stoppers 1988 Bionca on Fire 1988 Chicks in Black Leather 1988 Debbie Goes to Hawaii 1988 Diamond Collection Double X 14 1988 Dreams in the Forbidden Zone 1988 Flaming Tongues 2 1988 Girls Who Dig Girls 6 1988 Girls Who Dig Girls 8 1988 Honeybuns 2 Grecian Formula 1988 I Love You Molly Flynn 1988 Inches for Keisha 1988 Jamie Loves Jeff 1988 Jeff Loves Jamie USA alternative title Lez'be Friends 1988 Loose Ends IV The Ultimate Tail 1988 Linda Outrageous Orgies 2 1988 Outrageous Orgies 3 1988 Samantha I Love You 1988 Sex Asylum III 1988 Soul Kiss This 1988 Taste of the Best 1988 Tawnee Be Good 1988 The Eleventh Commandment julia-parton julia-perrin julia-swen julia-thomas julie-meadows julie-rage 1988 The Screwdriver Saloon 1988 Viper's Place 1988 Oral Majority 3 The Lust Continues 1987 Narrator Jerome Tanner's Oral Majority 3 The Lust Continues USA complete title Adult Video Therapist 1987 Angel's Got to Have It 1987 Back to Back 1987 Barbara Dare Devours Men 1987 Barbara Dare's Prime Choice 1987 Barbara the Barbarian 1987 Ophiria Blazing Bedrooms 1987 Babs Born to Be Bad 1987 Diamond Head 1987 Erica Dr Blacklove 1987 Endzone 1987 Furburgers Home of the Box Lunch 1987 Girl Games 1987 Girls Who Dig Girls 3 1987 Hard Rockin' Babes 1987 Paula Hard to Handle 1987 Immoral Miss Teeze 1987 Miss Teeze Loose Ends III 1987 Mile High Girls 1987 Erica Rio Heat! 1987 Robofox 1987 Woman in club Star Cuts 49 Erica Boyer 1987 Star Cuts Erica Boyer Volume Nine 49 USA alternative title The Best Little Whorehouse in Hong Kong 1987 Unveiled 1987 Gentlemen Prefer Ginger 1986 Nancy Sheets of San Francisco 1986 Joy Sum Ting Aerobics Girls Club 1986 Carol Another Kind of Love 1986 An Unnatural Act Part II 1986 Elizabeth
Backside to the Future 1986 Elizabeth Best Little Whorehouse in Beverly Hills 1986 Owner of whorehouse Black to the the Future 1986 Marilyn Mansfield Black to the Future USA video box title Cheerleader Academy 1986 Deep Inside Vanessa del Rio 1986 Evil Angel 1986 Lisa Funky Brewster 1986 Margaux Girl Toys 1986 Morgan Hannah Does Her Sisters 1986 Oral Majority 1986 Pumping Flesh 1986 Jay Jay Reckless Passion 1986 Seduction of Jennifer 1986 Sex Asylum II 1986 Sex Game 1986 Sexy Delights 1986 Slippery When Wet 1986 Driver's wife Star Cuts 33 Kari Foxx 1986 uncredited Hooker Star Cuts Kari Foxx Volume Six 33 USA alternative title The Autobiography of Herman Flogger 1986 The Debutante 1986/I The Devil in Miss Jones 4 The Final Outrage 1986 Schoolgirl Devil in Miss Jones Part 4 The Final Outrage USA video box title The Honeymooners 1986 The Performers 1986 Erica The Sex Dancer 1986 This Butt's for You 1986 Virgin Cheeks 1986 Liz Wet Science 1986 69 Park Avenue 1985 Wife 69 Park Ave USA video catalogue title Backdoor Babes 1985 Billy Blue Black Throat 1985 Oil Girl Dance Fever 1985 Erica Enchantress 1985 Flesh Fire 1985 Nurse Randolph Paul Lyons' Flesh Fire USA complete title Gang Bang 1985 2nd Biker Bar Chic Gang Bangs USA video box title Ginger on the Rocks 1985 Tom's Girlfriend Grand Opening 1985 Hard to Swallow 1985 Holly Holly Does Hollywood 1985 Hot Nights at the Blue Note Cafe 1985 The Blue Note Cafe USA alternative title Loose Ends 1985 Loose Ends II 1985 Linda Losing Control 1985 Midslumber's Night Dream 1985 Roschelle Naked Night 1985 Once Upon a Madonna 1985 Pipe Dreams 1985 Tailenders 1985 Tail Enders USA video title The Good Time Girls 1985 The Magic Touch 1985 The Night of the Headhunter 1985 Ebony The Pleasure Party 1985 Party Organizer White Bunbusters 1985 Every Woman Has a Fantasy 1984 Bonnie Before She Says 'I Do' 1984 Cagney & Stacey 1984 Cagney For Your Thighs Only 1984 Indecent Pleasures 1984 Lesbian Las Vegas Hustle 1984 Let's Get Physical 1984 Shelley Hyapatia Lee's Let's Get Physical USA complete title Modeling Studio 1984 Suzie
The Modeling Studio USA video box title Nasty Lady 1984 Sex Performer Open Up Traci 1984 Palomino Heat 1984 Mary Whitingham Rear Action Girls 1984 Mandy Six Shave Tail 1984 Star 84 the Tina Marie Story 1984 Trading Partners 1984 The Prostitute Where the Girls Are 1984 Candy Starr X Factor 1984 1st Nurse Young Girls Do 1984 Erica Thompson Body Girls 1983 Shelley Coffee Tea or Me 1983 Erica Passion for Bondage 1983 Working It Out 1983 Randy Campus Capers 1982 Erica Sexloose 1982 uncredited Melinda Sex Loose USA video box title Aunt Peg's Fulfillment 1981 as Joanne McRay Erica Manhattan Mistress 1981 Angel Horny Temptress USA reissue title Cells of Passion 1981 Erica Boyer/Terri Sheffield Bighouse Babes USA reissue title Desire for Men 1981 Couple 2 Nothing to Hide 1981 Karenda Please Mr Postman 1981 Mary Skin on Skin 1981 Boutique Saleslady Girls U S A 1980 Hooker with Boat Captain Gym Coach in Bondage 1980 uncredited Erica female wrestling

auditioner Beyond De Sade 1979 Never a Tender ann-kiray ann-marie-michelle antonia-dorian Moment 1979 as Carol Christy Erica Bee Carol Christy Sue Gantt Joanne McRay as R Bolla Francois Papillon John the gardener Rhonda Jo Petty Mrs Abbey Craig Roberts Sex Ed student/Male model Roxanne Rollan Sex Ed Student Candy Samples Herself Gina Valentino Sex Ed student Marc Wallice Timothy Heather Wayne Ron Jeremy sex porn video free porno girl nude girls tube xxx young hot teen com model sexy pics pussy models fucking videos lolitas fuck index dog gratis forum pictures phillipinesyoutube years ladies naked extreme fotos asian sex52sex underage torrent hairy vedio the pre animal photo foto rapidshare arab webboard live net ebony wild breast gone videw youtube thailahd tnaflix watch htm sexxy naruto indiasexx khuanniang celebrity nudes nude celeb celebrities porn naked celebritynudes free pics celebs sex lynn collins katrina nipple nudity famous bowden sexy hot celeberty nip female renee olstead news fake paparazzi photos nipples slip pictures Peter North Steve Drake Detective Michael Phillips Louise's Brother Gary Reed Pamela Jennings as Pam Nemmo Lynn Ray Jane Raven Debbie Northrup as Betty Blue Marc Wallice as Mark Wallice Bunny Bleu as Kim Warner Jerry Butler Craig Roberts as Greg Ruffner Blake Palmer as Blair Higgins Greg Derek David Sanders as Steve Dante Greg Rome Maria Daniels as Marie Daneils Susan Hart Suzie Athena Star Marc Wallice Joey Tom Byron Craig Roberts Raven David Cannon Christy Canyon Alice Gina Carrera Janet as Gina Carrerra Tom Byron Tom Peter North Janet's boyfriend 2 W O Williams The Angel as William Black Janey Robbins Jennifer Dino Alexander Pool Boy Marc Wallice Alice's stud Chanel Lindsay Miriam Dee Booher sweet ebony film posh caffaro cute catalina emmanuelle Susan Hart Suzi Cara Lott Sandy Morgan Paul Barresi Sid Rosen also as Paul Barreisi Eric Edwards Roy Harmon Paul Thomas Lt Mike Shaw Colleen Brennan Nancy Shaw as Colleen Brennen Tawny Mason Mai Lee Mike Motion Police Chief Peter North Party Guest Gina Carrera Party Guest Debbie Northrup Greg Rome Marc Wallice Craig Roberts Tom Byron milf nice tit simmons toe show jessica stockings amanda raquel horny patridge langton blonde tape public wild scandals star robbs stars playboy italian new topless movies spencer bikini forced mom you lesbian ftv bbs tvcom gerls www lolita child movies movie gallery picture and teens indian boy boys little wwwkhuanniangskgoth thai top old women gay woman russian pic actress ass female shemale Herself as Queen Kong Veronica Hart Dr Ruth Marc Wallice Man practicing with girl Raven Heather Thomas as Heather Adams Rene Tiffany Gina Carrera Harry Reems Lt Harry Parker Kristara Barrington Lily Chang as Kristina Barrington Ginger Lynn Allen Mandy Walker as Ginger Lynn Herschel Savage Charlie Wells as Hershel Savage

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Jane Fonda born Jayne Seymour Fonda December is an American actress writer political activist former fashion model and fitness guru She is a two time Academy Award winner and two time BAFTA Award winner In she was the recipient of the American Film Institute AFI Life Achievement Award Fonda made her Broadway debut in the play There Was a Little Girl for which she received the first of two Tony Award nominations and made her screen debut later the same year in Tall Story She rose to fame in s films such as Period of Adjustment Sunday in New York Cat Ballou Barefoot in the Park and Barbarella Her first husband was Barbarella director Roger Vadim A seven time Academy Award nominee she received her first nomination for They Shoot Horses Don't They and went on to win two Best Actress Oscars in the s for Klute and Coming Home Her other nominations were for Julia The China Syndrome On Golden Pond and The Morning After Her other major competitive awards include an Emmy Award for the TV film The Dollmaker two BAFTA Awards for Julia and The China Syndrome and four Golden Globe Awards In she released her first exercise video Jane Fonda's Workout which became the highest selling video of the time It would be the first of workout videos released by her over the next years which would collectively sell over million copies Divorced from second husband Tom Hayden she married billionaire media mogul Ted Turner in and retired from acting Fonda was divorced from Turner in She returned to acting with her first film in years the comedy Monster in Law Subsequent films have included Georgia Rule The Butler This Is Where I Leave You and Youth In she returned to Broadway after a year absence in the play Variations which earned her a Tony Award nomination while her recurring role in the HBO drama series The Newsroom has earned her two Emmy Award nominations She also released another five exercise videos between and She stars with Lily Tomlin Sam Waterston and Martin Sheen in the Netflix original series Grace and Frankie which premiered in Fonda was a visible political activist in the counterculture era during the Vietnam War and later became involved in advocacy for women She was famously and controversially photographed sitting on an anti aircraft gun on a visit to Hanoi She has also protested the Iraq War and violence against women and describes herself as a feminist In she Robin Morgan and Gloria Steinem co founded the Women's Media Center an organization that works to amplify the voices of women in the media through advocacy media and leadership training and the creation of original content Fonda serves on the board of the organization Contents hide Early life Acting career s s s Exercise videos Retirement and return s Political activism Opposition to the Vietnam War Controversial visit to Hanoi Regrets Subject of government surveillance Feminist causes Native Americans Israeli Palestinian conflict Opposition to the Iraq War Fonda and Kerry Environmentalism Writing Charitable work Personal life Relationships Faith Health Honors Filmography References olga-cabaeva olga-conti olga-pechova olga-petrova olivia-alize olivia-del-rio olivia-flores olivia-la-roche Bibliography External links Early life edit Jane with father Navy Lieutenant Henry Fonda Jayne Seymour Fonda was born in New York City the daughter of actor Henry Fonda and the Canadian born socialite Frances Ford Brokaw née Seymour According to her father their surname came from an Italian ancestor who immigrated to the Netherlands in the s There they intermarried and began to use Dutch given names with Jane's first Fonda ancestor reaching New York in She also has English Scottish and French ancestry She was named after the third wife of Henry VIII Jane Seymour to whom she is distantly related on her mother's side She has a brother Peter who is also an actor and a maternal half sister Frances de Villers Brokaw aka Pan whose daughter is Pilar Corrias the owner of the Pilar Corrias Gallery in London In when Fonda was twelve her mother committed suicide while undergoing treatment at Craig House psychiatric hospital in Beacon New York Later that year Fonda's father married socialite Susan Blanchard born just nine years his daughter's senior this marriage ended in divorce At Fonda taught dance at Fire Island Pines New York She attended Greenwich Academy in Greenwich Connecticut Fonda attended the Emma Willard School in Troy New York and Vassar College in Poughkeepsie where she was an undistinguished student Before starting her acting career Fonda was a model appearing twice on the cover of Vogue Acting career edit Fonda became interested in acting in while appearing with her father in a charity performance of The Country Girl at the Omaha Community Playhouse After dropping out of Vassar she went to Paris for two years to study art Upon returning to the states in she met Lee Strasberg and the meeting changed the course of her life Fonda saying I went to the Actors Studio and Lee Strasberg told me I had talent Real talent It was the first time that anyone except my father who had to say so told me I was good At anything It was a turning point in my life I went to bed thinking about acting I woke up thinking about acting It was like the roof had come off my life s edit Her stage work in the late s laid the foundation for her film career in the s She averaged almost two movies a year throughout the decade starting in with Tall Story in which she recreated one of her Broadway roles as a college cheerleader pursuing a basketball star played by Anthony Perkins Period of Adjustment and Walk on the Wild Side followed in In Walk on the Wild Side Fonda played a prostitute and earned a Golden Globe for Most Promising Newcomer In she appeared in Sunday in New York Newsday called her the loveliest and most gifted of all our new young actresses However she also had detractors in the same year the Harvard Lampoon named her the Year's Worst Actress for The Chapman Report Fonda's career breakthrough came with Cat Ballou in which she played a schoolmarm turned outlaw This comedy Western received five Oscar nominations with Lee Marvin winning best actor and was one of the year's top ten films at the box office It was considered by many to have been the film that brought Fonda to bankable stardom After this came the comedies Any Wednesday opposite Jason Robards and Dean Jones and Barefoot in the Park co starring Robert Redford In she played the title role in the science fiction spoof Barbarella which established her status as a sex symbol In contrast the tragedy They Shoot Horses Don't They won her critical acclaim and she earned her first Oscar nomination for the role Fonda was very selective by the end of the s turning down lead roles in Rosemary's Baby and Bonnie and Clyde which went to Mia Farrow and Faye Dunaway respectively s edit Fonda won her first Academy Award for Best Actress in again playing a prostitute the gamine Bree Daniels in the murder mystery Klute She won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for Klute and another in for Coming Home as well as the Academy Award for Best Actress in for the story of a disabled Vietnam War veteran's difficulty in re entering civilian life Between Klute in and Fun With Dick and Jane in Fonda did not have a major charisma-cole charlie-latour charlie-waters charlotte-de-castille charmane-star chasey-lain film success She appeared in A Doll's House Steelyard Blues and The Blue Bird From comments ascribed to her in interviews some have inferred that she personally blamed the situation on anger at her outspoken political views I can't say I was blacklisted but I was greylisted However in her autobiography My Life So Far she rejected such simplification The suggestion is that because of my actions against the war my career had been destroyed But the truth is that my career far from being destroyed after the war flourished with a vigor it had not previously enjoyed She reduced acting because of her political activism providing a new focus in her life Her return to acting in a series of 'issue driven' films reflected this new focus Jane Fonda did an extraordinary job with her part She is a splendid actress with a strong analytical mind which sometimes gets in her way and with an incredible technique and control of emotion she can cry at will on cue mere drops or buckets as the scene demands I thought Jane

well deserved the Oscar she should have got Fred Zinnemann director of Julia In Fonda starred as a reporter alongside Yves Montand in Tout Va Bien directed by Jean Luc Godard and Jean Pierre Gorin The two directors then made Letter to Jane in which the two spent nearly an hour discussing a news photograph of Fonda Through her production company IPC Films she produced films that helped return her to star status The comedy film Fun With Dick and Jane is generally considered her comeback picture Also in she portrayed the playwright Lillian Hellman in Julia receiving positive reviews BAFTA and Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress and an Oscar nomination During this period Fonda announced that she would make only films that focused on important issues and she generally stuck to her word She turned down An Unmarried Woman because she felt the part was not relevant She won another BAFTA Award for Best Actress in with The China Syndrome about a cover up of a vulnerability in a nuclear power plant The same year she starred in The Electric Horseman with her previous co star Robert Redford s edit Fonda and photographer Alan Light following the nd Academy Awards in In Fonda starred in to with Lily Tomlin and Dolly Parton The film was a huge critical and box office success becoming the second highest grossing release of the year Fonda had long wanted to work with her father hoping it would help their strained relationship She achieved this goal when she purchased the screen rights to the play On Golden Pond specifically for her father and her On Golden Pond which also starred Katharine Hepburn brought Henry Fonda his only Academy Award for Best Actor which Jane accepted on his behalf as he was ill and could not leave home He died five months later Fonda continued appearing in feature films throughout the s winning an Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in for The Dollmaker and starring in the role of Dr Martha Livingston in Agnes of God She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her portrayal of an alcoholic murder suspect in the thriller The Morning After opposite Jeff Bridges She ended the decade by appearing in Old Gringo This was followed by the romantic drama Stanley Iris with Robert De Niro which would be her final film for years Exercise videos edit For many years Fonda took ballet class to keep fit but after fracturing her foot while filming The China Syndrome she was no longer able to participate To compensate she began participating in aerobics and strengthening exercises under the direction of Leni Cazden The Leni Workout became the Jane Fonda Workout which began a second career for her continuing for many years This was considered one of the influences that started the fitness craze among baby boomers then approaching middle age In Fonda released her first exercise video titled Jane Fonda's Workout inspired by her best selling book Jane Fonda's Workout Book Jane Fonda's Workout became the highest selling home video of the next few years selling over a million copies The video's release led many people to buy the then new VCR in order to watch and perform the workout at home The exercise videos were produced and directed by Sidney Galanty who helped to put the deal together with video distributor Stuart Karl of Karl Home Video Galanty produced the first video and more after that She would subsequently release workout videos with the series selling a total of million copies combined more than any other exercise series She released five workout books and thirteen audio programs through After a fifteen year hiatus she released two new fitness videos on DVD in aiming at an older audience Retirement and return edit Fonda with the director and stars of Youth at the Cannes Film Festival In the early s after three decades in film Fonda announced her retirement from the film industry In May she returned to the screen with the box office success Monster in Law starring opposite Jennifer Lopez Two years later Fonda starred in the Garry Marshall directed drama Georgia Rule alongside Felicity Huffman and Lindsay Lohan In Fonda returned to act on Broadway for the first time since playing Katherine Brandt in Moisés Kaufman's Variations The role earned her a Tony nomination for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play s edit Fonda filmed her second movie in French when she had a leading role in the drama All Together The same year she starred alongside Catherine Keener in Peace Love and Misunderstanding playing a hippy grandmother In Fonda began a recurring role as Leona Lansing CEO of a major media company in HBO's original political drama The Newsroom Her role continued throughout the show's three seasons and Fonda received two Emmy nominations for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series In Fonda had a small role in The Butler portraying First Lady Nancy Reagan She had more film work the following year appearing in the comedies Better Living Through Chemistry and This is Where I Leave You She also voiced a character on The Simpsons She played an acting diva in Paolo Sorrentino's Youth in for which she earned a Golden Globe Award nomination Her upcoming film roles include Fathers and Daughters with Russell Crowe Fonda appears as the co lead in the Netflix series Grace and Frankie She and Lily Tomlin play aging women whose husbands reveal they are in love Filming on the first season was completed in November and the show premiered online on May In June the Human Rights Campaign released a video in tribute to the victims of the Orlando gay nightclub shooting in the video Fonda and others told the stories of the people killed there Political activism edit During the s Fonda engaged in political activism in support of the Civil Rights Movement and in opposition to the Vietnam War Fonda's visits to France brought her into contact with leftist French intellectuals who were opposed to war an experience that she later characterized as small c communism Along with other celebrities she supported the Alcatraz Island occupation by American Indians in which was intended to call attention to the failures of the government with regards
to treaty rights and the movement for greater Indian sovereignty She supported Huey Newton and the Black Panthers in the early s stating Revolution is an act of love we are the children of revolution born to be rebels It runs in our blood She called the Black Panthers our revolutionary vanguard we must support them with love money propaganda and risk She has been involved in the feminist movement since the s which dovetails with her activism in support of civil rights Opposition to the Vietnam War edit See also Opposition to the Vietnam War and RITA Resistance Inside the Armies § Jane Fonda and RITA Fonda at an anti Vietnam War conference in The Hague in January In April Fonda with Fred Gardner and Donald Sutherland formed the FTA tour Free The Army a play on the troop expression Fuck The Army an anti war road show designed as an answer to Bob Hope's USO tour The tour described as political vaudeville by Fonda visited military towns along the West Coast with the goal of establishing a dialogue with soldiers about their upcoming deployments to Vietnam The dialogue was made into a movie F T A which contained strong frank criticism of the war by servicemen and servicewomen it was released in On May Fonda appeared before an assembly at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque to speak on GI rights and issues The end of her presentation was met with a discomforting silence The quiet was broken when Beat poet Gregory Corso staggered onto the stage Drunk Corso challenged Fonda using a four letter expletive Why hadn't she addressed the shooting of four students at Kent State by the Ohio National Guard which had just taken place Fonda in her autobiography revisited the incident I was shocked by the news and felt like a fool On the same day she joined a protest march on the home of university president Ferrel Heady The protestors called themselves They Shoot Students Don't They a reference to Fonda's recently released film They Shoot Horses Don't They which had just been screened in Albuquerque In the same year Fonda spoke out april-flowers april-may april-west arcadia-lake ariana-bali against the war at a rally organized by Vietnam Veterans Against the War VVAW in Valley Forge Pennsylvania She offered to help raise funds for VVAW and for her efforts was rewarded with the title of Honorary National Coordinator On November Fonda started a tour of college campuses on which she raised funds for the organization As noted by The New York Times Fonda was a major patron of the VVAW citation needed Controversial visit to Hanoi edit Jane Fonda on the NVA anti aircraft gun Fonda visited Hanoi in July to witness firsthand the bombing damage to the dikes After touring and photographing dike systems in North Vietnam she said the United States had been intentionally targeting the dike system along the Red River Columnist Joseph Kraft who was also touring North Vietnam said he believed the damage to the dikes was incidental and was being used as propaganda by Hanoi and that if the U S Air Force were truly going after the dikes it would do so in a methodical not a harum scarum way Fonda was photographed seated on an anti aircraft gun the controversial photo outraged a number of Americans and earned her the nickname Hanoi Jane In her autobiography she wrote that she was manipulated into sitting on the battery she had been horrified at the implications of the pictures and regretted they were taken In a entry at her official website Fonda explained It happened on my last day in Hanoi I was exhausted and an emotional wreck after the week visit The translator told me that the soldiers wanted to sing me a song He translated as they sung It was a song about the day 'Uncle Ho' declared their country's independence in Hanoi's Ba Dinh Square I heard these words All men are created equal they are given certain rights among these are life Liberty and Happiness These are the words Ho pronounced at the historic ceremony I began to cry and clap These young men should not be our enemy They celebrate the same words Americans do The soldiers asked me to sing for them in return I memorized a song called Day Ma Di written by anti war South Vietnamese students I knew I was slaughtering it but everyone seemed delighted that I was making the attempt I finished Everyone was laughing and clapping including me Here is my best honest recollection of what happened someone I don't remember who led me towards the gun and I sat down still laughing still applauding It all had nothing to do with where I was sitting I hardly even thought about where I was sitting The cameras flashed It is possible that it was a set up that the Vietnamese had it all planned I will never know But if they did I can't blame them The buck stops here If I was used I allowed it to happen a two minute lapse of sanity that will haunt me forever But the photo exists delivering its message regardless of what I was doing or feeling I carry this heavy in my heart I have apologized numerous times for any pain I may have caused servicemen and their families because of this photograph It was never my intention to cause harm Fonda made radio broadcasts on Hanoi Radio throughout her two week tour commenting on her visits to villages hospitals schools and factories damaged in the war and denouncing U S military policy in Vietnam Fonda has defended her decision to travel to North Vietnam and her radio broadcasts During the course of her visit Fonda visited American prisoners of war POWs and brought back messages from them to their families When stories of torture of returning POWs were later being publicized by the Nixon administration Fonda called the returning POWs hypocrites and liars and pawns adding about the prisoners she visited These were not men who had been tortured These were not men who had been starved These were not men who had been brainwashed In addition Fonda told The New York Times in I'm quite sure that there were incidents of torture but the pilots who were saying it was the policy of the Vietnamese and that it was systematic I believe that's a lie Her visits to the POW camp led to persistent and exaggerated rumors which were repeated widely in the press and continued to circulate
on the Internet decades later Fonda as well as the named POWs have personally denied the rumors and subsequent interviews with the POWs showed these rumored allegations to be false as the persons named had never met Fonda In Fonda helped fund and organize the Indochina Peace Campaign which continued to mobilize antiwar activists across the nation after the Paris Peace Agreement through when the United States withdrew from Vietnam Because of her tour of North Vietnam during wartime and the subsequent rumors circulated about her visit resentment against her among some veterans and currently serving U S military still exists For example when U S Naval Academy plebes who had not yet been born when Fonda protested against the Vietnam war shouted out Goodnight Jane Fonda the company replied Goodnight bitch This practice has since been prohibited by the academy's Plebe Summer Standard Operating Procedures In Michael A Smith a U S Navy veteran was arrested for disorderly conduct in Kansas City Missouri after he spat chewing tobacco kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love in Fonda's face during a book signing event for her autobiography My Life So Far He told reporters that he consider ed it a debt of honor adding she spit in our faces for years It was absolutely worth it There are a lot of veterans who would love to do what I did Fonda refused to press charges Regrets edit In a interview with Barbara Walters Fonda expressed regret for some of her comments and actions stating I would like to say something not just to Vietnam veterans in New England but to men who were in Vietnam who I hurt or whose pain I caused to deepen because of things that I said or did I was trying to help end the killing and the war but there were times when I was thoughtless and careless about it and I'm very sorry that I hurt them And I want to apologize to them and their families I will go to my grave regretting the photograph of me in an anti aircraft gun which looks like I was trying to shoot at American planes It hurt so many soldiers It galvanized such hostility It was the most horrible thing I could possibly have done It was just thoughtless Some critics responded that her apology came at a time when a group of New England Veterans had launched a campaign to disrupt a film project she was working on leading to the charge that her apology was motivated at least partly by self interest In a Minutes interview on March Fonda reiterated that she had no regrets about her trip to North Vietnam in with the exception of the anti aircraft gun photo She stated that the incident was a betrayal of American forces and of the country that gave me privilege Fonda said The image of Jane Fonda Barbarella Henry Fonda's daughter sitting on an enemy aircraft gun was a betrayal the largest lapse of judgment that I can even imagine She later distinguished between regret over the use of her image as propaganda and pride for her anti war activism There are hundreds of American delegations that had met with the POWs Both sides were using the POWs for propaganda It's not something that I will apologize for Fonda said she had no regrets about the broadcasts she made on Radio Hanoi something she asked the North Vietnamese to do Our government was lying to us and men were dying because of it and I felt I had to do anything that I could to expose the lies and help end the war Subject of government surveillance edit In it was revealed that Fonda was one of approximately Americans whose communications between and were monitored by the United States National Security Agency NSA as part of Project Minaret a program that some NSA officials have described as disreputable if not downright illegal Fonda's communications as well as those of her husband Tom Hayden were intercepted by Britain's Government Communications Headquarters GCHQ Under the UKUSA Agreement the GCHQ sent the intercepted data on Americans to the U S government Feminist causes edit In early March in an interview with Brie Larson published by People magazine Fonda stated One of the great things the women's movement has done is to make us realise that rape and abuse is not

our fault We were violated and it's not right She said I’ve been raped I’ve been sexually abused as a child and I’ve been fired because I wouldn’t sleep with my boss She said I always thought it was my fault that I didn’t do or say the right thing I know young girls who’ve been raped and didn’t even know it was rape They think ‘It must have been because I said ‘no’ the wrong way ’ Through her work Fonda said she wants to help abuse victims realize that rape and abuse is not our fault Fonda said that her difficult past led her to become such a passionate activist for women’s rights The actress is an active supporter of the V Day movement which works to stop violence against women and girls In she established the Jane Fonda Center for Adolescent Reproductive Health which aims to help prevent teen pregnancy She was a victim of the disease to please in her early life which plagued many American females of her generation Fonda revealed in that her mother Frances Ford Seymour was recurrently sexually abused as young as eight and this may have led to her suicide when Jane was Fonda on the cover of Ms magazine in Fonda has been a longtime supporter of feminist causes including V Day a movement to stop violence against women inspired by the off Broadway hit The Vagina Monologues of which she is an honorary chairperson She was present at their first summit in bringing together founder Eve Ensler Afghan women oppressed by the Taliban and a Kenyan activist campaigning to save girls from genital mutilation In she established the Jane Fonda Center for Adolescent Reproductive Health at Emory University in Atlanta Georgia to help prevent adolescent pregnancy through training and program development On February Fonda led a march through Ciudad Juárez with Sally Field Eve Ensler and other women urging Mexico to provide sufficient resources to newly appointed officials helping investigate the murders of hundreds of women in the rough border city That same year she served as a mentor to the first all transsexual cast of The Vagina Monologues In the days before the September Swedish elections Fonda went to Sweden to support the new political party Feministiskt initiativ in their election campaign In My Life So Far Fonda stated that she considers patriarchy to be harmful to men as well as women She also states that for many years she feared to call herself a feminist because she believed that all feminists were anti male But now with her increased understanding of patriarchy she feels that feminism is beneficial to both men and women and states that she still loves men adding that when she divorced Ted Turner she felt like she had also divorced the world of patriarchy and was very happy to have done so Native Americans edit Fonda went to Seattle Washington in to support a group of Native Americans who were led by Bernie Whitebear The group had occupied part of the grounds of Fort Lawton which was in the process of being surplussed by the United States Army and turned into a park The group was attempting to secure a land base where they could establish services for the sizable local urban Indian population protesting that Indians had a right to part of the land that was originally all theirs The endeavor succeeded and the Daybreak Star Cultural Center was constructed in the city's Discovery Park In addition to environmental reasons Fonda has been an critic of oil pipelines because of their being built without consent on Native American Land In Fonda responded to American President Donald Trump's mandate to resume construction of the controversial North Dakota Pipelines by saying that Trump does this illegally because he has not gotten consent from the tribes through whose countries this goes and pointing out that the U S has agreed to treaties that require them to get the consent of the people who are affected the indigenous people who live there Israeli Palestinian conflict edit In December Fonda visited Israel and the West Bank as part of a tour focusing on stopping violence against women She demonstrated with Women in Black against Israel's occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip outside the residence of Israel's Prime Minister She later visited Jewish and Arab doctors and patients at a Jerusalem hospital followed by visits to Ramallah to see a physical rehabilitation center and a Palestinian refugee camp She was heckled by three members of Women in Green as she arrived for a meeting with leading Israeli feminists unreliable source In September she was one of more than signatories to a letter protesting the Toronto International Film Festival's spotlight on Tel Aviv The protest letter said that the spotlight on Tel Aviv was part of the Israeli propaganda machine because it was supported in part by funding from the Israeli government and had been described by the Israeli Consul General Amir Gissin as being part of a Brand Israel campaign intended to draw attention away from Israel's conflict with the Palestinians Other signers included actor Danny Glover musician David Byrne journalist John Pilger and authors Alice Walker Naomi Klein and Howard Zinn Rabbi sandy-style sandy-summers sara-brandy-canyon sara-faye sarah-bernard Marvin Hier of the Simon Wiesenthal Center stated that People who support letters like this are people who do not support a two state solution By calling into question the legitimacy of Tel Aviv they are supporting a one state solution which means the destruction of the State of Israel Hier continued saying that it is clear that the script the protesters are reading from might as well have been written by Hamas Fonda in The Huffington Post said she regretted some of the language used in the original protest letter and how it was perhaps too easily misunderstood It certainly has been wildly distorted Contrary to the lies that have been circulated the protest letter was not demonizing Israeli films and filmmakers She continued writing the greatest 're branding' of Israel would be to celebrate that country's long standing courageous and robust peace movement by helping to end the blockade of Gaza through negotiations with all parties to the conflict and by stopping the expansion of West Bank settlements That's the way to show Israel's commitment to peace not a PR campaign There will be no two state solution unless this happens Fonda emphasized that she in no way support s the destruction of Israel I am for the two state solution I have been to Israel many times and love the country and its people Several prominent Atlanta Jews subsequently signed a letter to The Huffington Post rejecting the vilification of Fonda who they described as a strong supporter and friend of Israel Opposition to the Iraq War edit See also Opposition to the Iraq War Fonda argued that the military campaign in Iraq will turn people all over the world against America and asserted that a global hatred of America would result in more terrorist attacks in the aftermath of the war In July Fonda announced plans to make an anti war bus tour in March with her daughter and several families of military veterans saying that some of the war veterans she had met while on her book tour had urged her to speak out against the Iraq War She later canceled the tour because of concerns that she would distract attention from Cindy Sheehan's activism In September Fonda was scheduled to join British politician and anti war activist George Galloway at two stops on his U S book tour Madison Wisconsin and Chicago She canceled her appearances at the last minute citing instructions from her doctors to avoid travel following recent hip surgery On January Fonda participated in an anti war rally and march held on the National Mall in Washington D C declaring that silence is no longer an option Fonda spoke at an anti war rally earlier in the day at the Navy Memorial where members of the organization Free Republic picketed in a counter protest Fonda and Kerry edit In the presidential election her name was used as a disparaging epithet against John Kerry the former VVAW leader who was then the Democratic Party presidential candidate Republican National Committee Chairman Ed Gillespie called Kerry a Jane Fonda Democrat Also Kerry's opponents circulated a photograph showing Fonda and Kerry kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie in the same large crowd at a anti war rally although they were sitting several rows apart A faked composite photograph which gave the false impression that the two had shared a speaker's platform was also circulated Environmentalism edit In Fonda expressed disapproval of President Barack Obama's permitting of Arctic drilling Petroleum exploration in the Arctic at the Sundance Film Festival In July she marched in a Toronto protest called the March for Jobs Justice and Climate which was organized by dozens of nonprofits labor unions and environmental activists including Canadian author Naomi Klein The march aimed to show businesses and politicians alike that climate change is inherently linked to issues that may seem unrelated In addition to issues of Civil Rights Fonda has been an opponent of oil developments and their adverse effects on the environment In while on a trip with Greenpeace to protest oil developments Fonda criticized Canadian Prime Minister Justin
Trudeau saying at the summit on climate change in Paris known as the Paris agreement Trudeau talked so beautifully of needing to meet the requirements of the climate treaty and to respect and hold to the treaties with indigenous people and yet he has betrayed every one of the things he committed to in Paris Writing edit Jane Fonda at a book signing On April Random House released Fonda's autobiography My Life So Far The book describes her life as a series of three acts each thirty years long and declares that her third act will be her most significant partly because of her commitment to the Christian religion and that it will determine the things for which she will be remembered Fonda's autobiography was well received by book critics and was noted to be as beguiling and as maddening as Jane Fonda herself in its Washington Post review pronouncing her a beautiful bundle of contradictions The New York Times called the book achingly poignant In January Fonda started chronicling her Broadway return in a blog with posts about topics ranging from her Pilates class to her fears and excitement about her new play She uses Twitter and has a Facebook page In Fonda published a new book Prime Time Love health sex fitness friendship spirit making the most of all of your life The book offers stories from her own life as well as from the lives of others giving her perspective on how to better live what she calls the critical years from and and especially from and beyond Charitable work edit Fonda's charitable works have generally focused on Youth Education Adolescent Reproductive Health Environment Human Services and the Arts Fonda has established the Georgia Campaign for Adolescent Power Potential GCAPP in the mid s and the Fonda Family Foundation in the late s In the mid s Fonda founded the Jane Fonda Foundation in with one million dollars of her own money as a charitable corporation with herself as president chair director and secretary Fonda contributes hours each week on its behalf Personal life edit Faith edit Fonda grew up as an atheist but turned to Christianity in the early s She describes her beliefs as being outside of established religion with a more feminist slant and views God as something that lives within each of us as Spirit or soul She practices Zazen meditation and Yoga Health edit As a child Fonda suffered from a poor self image and lack of confidence in her appearance an issue exacerbated by her father Henry Fonda On the subject Fonda said I was raised in the ‘ s I was taught by my father actor Henry Fonda that how I looked was all that mattered frankly He was a good man and I was mad for him but he sent messages to me that fathers should not send Unless you look perfect you're not going to be loved In adulthood Fonda developed bulimia which took a toll on her quality of life for many years an issue that also affected her mother Frances Ford Seymour who committed suicide when Fonda was On the subject of her recovery from bulimia Fonda said It was in my s and if you suffer from bulimia the older you get the worse it gets It takes longer to recover from a bout I had a career I was winning awards I was supporting nonprofits I had a family I had to make a choice I live or I die Having been diagnosed with breast cancer Fonda underwent a lumpectomy in November and has recovered Honors edit Fonda at the Cannes Film Festival Fonda backstage with actress Thora Birch before being honored at the Hollywood Film Awards In Fonda was given the honorary title of Miss Army Recruiting by the Pentagon In she was awarded the Women in Film Crystal Award In the United Nations Population Fund made Fonda a Goodwill Ambassador In she was awarded the Women's eNews Leaders for the st Century award as one of Seven Who Change Their Worlds In Fonda was awarded an Honorary Palme d'Or by Cannes Film Festival President Gilles Jacob for career achievement Only three others had received such an award Jeanne Moreau Alain Resnais and Gerard Oury In December Fonda was inducted into the California Hall of Fame located at The California Museum for History Women and the Arts In December Fonda received the New York Women's Agenda Lifetime Achievement Award In November she received the National German Sustainability Award She was also selected as the nd recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award In she received a Goldene Kamera lifetime achievement award Filmography edit Main article Jane Fonda filmography References edit Jump up Davidson Bill Jane Fonda An Intimate Biography Dutton p ISBN Jane was christened Jane Seymour Fonda and as a child was known as Lady Jane by her mother and everyone else Jump up to a b Jane Fonda Biography Actress Biography com FYI A E Networks Retrieved March Jump up Fonda Henry My Life New York Dutton page Jump up The Fonda immigrant ancestor came from Eagum also spelled Augum or Agum a village in Friesland a northern province of the Netherlands Jellis Douwe Fonda a Dutch immigrant from Friesland or Vrysland immigrated and first went to Beverwyck now Albany in he was the founder of the City of Fonda New York see Descendants of Jellis Douw Fonda fonda org and Ancestry of Peter Fonda genealogy com Archived from the original on March Jump up Kiernan Thomas 'Jane An Intimate Biography of Jane Fonda Putnam p Jump up Andersen Christopher P Citizen Jane The Turbulent Life of Jane Fonda Dell p Jump up Fonda p Jump up Craven Jo October Pilar Corrias a new gallery for a new era The Daily Telegraph London Jump up The Craig House Institute Tioranda Beacon Roadtrippers Retrieved Jump up Fonda pp Jump up SAGE Nets K at Annual Pines Fête Fire Island News June Archived from the original on December Jump up Sonneborn Liz A to Z of American women in the performing arts New York Facts on File p ISBN Jump up to a b Browne Pat Browne Ray Broadus The guide to United States popular culture Bowling Green OH Bowling Green State University Popular Press p ISBN Jump up to a b Bosworth Patricia Jane Fonda The Private Life of a Public Woman Houghton Mifflin Harcourt pp ISBN Jump up Foster Arnold W and Blau Judith R Art and Society Readings in the Sociology of the Arts SUNY Press pp ISBN Jump up preludes to variations the early broadway years of jane fonda Preludes to Variations The Early Broadway Years of Jane Fonda Jump up Harvard Lampoon Lampoons Films Sarasota Herald Tribune April Retrieved February Jump up to a b c d e f g h Stated in interview on Inside the Actors Studio Jump up Jane Fonda profile Hello Magazine retrieved April Jump up Fonda p Jump up Zinnemann Fred A Life in the Movies An Autobiography Macmillan Books p Jump up Yearly Box Office Results boxofficemojo com Jump up Barbarella comes of age The Age May retrieved May If Barbarella was an act of rebellion On Golden Pond was a more mature rapprochement Fonda bought the rights to Ernest Thompson's play to offer the role to her father Jump up Goldwert Lindsay September Jane Fonda is back in her leotard at iconic actress and fitness guru to debut new fitness DVDs Daily News New York Retrieved July Jump up Solomon Deborah Jane Fonda profile The New York Times Retrieved July Jump up Jane Fonda returns to Broadway in ' Variations' USA Today Associated Press November retrieved July Jump up Frey Hillary March Broadway Bows Down to Power Dames Fonda Sarandon Lansbury The New York Observer Archived from the original on March Retrieved March Jump up Search Past Winners Tony Awards Retrieved July Jump up Jane Fonda in a French Twist Daily Express London May Jump up Et si on vivait tous ensemble The New York Times Retrieved February Jump up Young Neil August And If We All Lived Together ' 'Et si on vivait tous ensemble ' The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved April Jump up Kit Borys May Fonda Keener in 'Peace' accord Reuters Retrieved July Jump up Jane Fonda plays Mr Burns' secret lover on 'The Simpsons' Entertainment Weekly Retrieved December Jump up Jane Fonda and Lily Tomlin Back Together Again in Grace and Frankie A New Original Comedy Series on Netflix The Futon Critic March Retrieved August Jump up Celebrities Honor Victims of Orlando Tragedy Human Rights Campaign Hrc org Retrieved Jump up Rothaus Steve June Pulse Orlando shooting scene a popular LGBT club where lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher employees patrons 'like family' The Miami Herald Retrieved June Jump up Fonda p Jump up Alcatraz is Not an Island PBS Jump up The Black Panthers Socialist Worker London UK January Archived from the original on August Jump up Rotten Tomatoes profile of F T A retrieved April Jump up Nicosia Gerald Home to war a history of the Vietnam veterans' movement Carroll Graf p ISBN Jump up The Battle of the Dikes Time August Retrieved April Jump up Roberts Laura July Jane Fonda relives her protest days on the set of her new film The Daily Telegraph London Retrieved July Jump up Jane Fonda mistakes Washington Times December Archived from the original on October Retrieved November Jump up to a b The Truth About My Trip To Hanoi July accessed January at the Jane Fonda official website Jump up Fonda Jane My Life So Far Random House p ISBN Jump up to a b c Hanoi'd with Jane Snopes com May Retrieved August Jump up Andersen p Jump up Jane Fonda Grants Some P O W Torture The New York Times April Jump up Indochina Peace Campaign Womankind The Chicago Women's Liberation Union Herstory Project November Archived from the original on July Retrieved February Jump up Indochina Peace Campaign Boston Office Records University of Massachusetts Retrieved September Jump up Brush Peter Hating Jane The American Military and Jane Fonda Vanderbilt University Archived from the original on April Jump up Ross Steven J Movement Leader Grassroots Builder Jane Fonda Hollywood Left and Right How Movie Stars Shaped American Politics New York Oxford University Press p ISBN Retrieved November Jump up Plebe Summer Standard Operating Procedures PDF United States Naval Academy March pp Archived from the original PDF on July Retrieved April Jump up Fowler Brandi July Jane Fonda rips QVC after appearance scuttled msnbc com Retrieved July permanent dead link Jump up Keller Julie April Veteran Not Fonda Jane E Online Retrieved July Jump up Interview with Barbara Walters UC Berkeley Library Sound Recording Project Retrieved February Jump up Goldberg Jonah June If Fonda is sorry let her say so Jewish World Review Jump up Jane Fonda Wish I Hadn't minutes CBS March Retrieved February Jump up Burr William Aid Matthew M eds September Disreputable if Not Outright Illegal' The National Security Agency versus Martin Luther King Muhammad Ali Art Buchwald Frank Church et al National Security Archive George Washington University Archived from the original on September Jump up Pilkington Ed September Declassified NSA files show agency spied on Muhammad Ali and MLK The Guardian London Archived from the original on September Retrieved September Jump up Christopher Hanson August British 'helped U S in spying on activists' The Vancouver Sun Retrieved November Jump up 'UK aided spy check' Evening Times Glasgow Scotland August Retrieved November Jump up Jane Fonda Reveals She Was Raped and Sexually Abused as a Child 'I Always Thought It Was My Fault' March Jump up Jane Fonda reveals rape and child abuse BBC News Jump up V Day's Press Kit PDF V Day Retrieved February Jump up Jane
Fonda Center

for Adolescent Reproductive Health Emory University Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Archived from the original on November Retrieved February Jump up Actresses Speak Out in Mexico City CBS News May Retrieved February Jump up Josh Aronson and Ariel Orr Jordan Beautiful Daughters Jump up Jane Fonda FI s galjonsfigur för en dag in Swedish Metro International September Retrieved February Jump up Fonda My Life So Far Jump up Tizon Alex December Facing The End Activist Reflects On Life's Victories The Seattle Times Retrieved March Jump up Whitebear Bernie Self Determination Taking Back Fort Lawton Meeting the Needs of Seattle's Native American Community Through Conversion Race Poverty the Environment Volume IV Number Volume V Number Spring Summer p Jump up New York Daily News January http www nydailynews com new york manhattan jane fonda rails trump pipeline orders nyc protest article Retrieved January Missing or empty title help Jump up Fonda joins Jerusalem demo BBC News Online December accessed February Jump up Jane in Jerusalem Jewish World Review December retrieved April Jump up No Celebration of Occupation Artists and Writers Sign Letter Protesting Toronto Film Festival Decision to Spotlight Tel Aviv Democracy Now September Retrieved December Jump up Brand Israel set to launch in GTA Archived from the original on September Retrieved Canadian Jewish News August accessed February Jump up Canadian director protests TIFF Tel Aviv spotlight CBC News August Jump up French Cameron September Artists protest Tel Aviv focus at Toronto film fest Reuters Jump up Knegt Peter September Fonda Loach and Klein Among Those Joining Protest Against TIFF IndieWire com Jump up An Open Letter to the Toronto International Film Festival Archived from the original on September Retrieved September accessed February Jump up US actor Jane Fonda backs away from Israel row at Toronto film festival The Guardian September Jump up To criticize Israel is a dangerous thing in today's Canada Toronto Star September accessed February Jump up pamela-mann pamela-stanford pamela-stealt pandora paola-albini pascale-vital to a b Fonda Jane September Expanding the Narrative The Huffington Post Jump up Minkin David September Atlanta Jews Reject Vilification and Stand Up for Jane Fonda The Huffington Post accessed February Jump up Jane Fonda to oppose Iraq war on bus tour USA Today Associated Press July Archived from the original on February Retrieved January Jump up Friedman Roger September Fonda Puts Brakes on Bus Tour FOX News retrieved April Jump up Baxter Sarah September Jane stands up Gorgeous George The Sunday Times London UK Retrieved January Jump up War protesters demand U S troop withdrawal msnbc com Associated Press January Retrieved January Jump up Ruane Michael Kunkle Fredrick January Thousands Protest Bush Policy The Washington Post p Retrieved January Jump up Does a photograph show Senator John Kerry at a anti war rally Snopes retrieved April Jump up Does a photograph show Senator John Kerry and Jane Fonda sharing a speaker's platform at an anti war rally Snopes com retrieved April Jump up Swann Jennifer July Marching for Action on Climate Change Jane Fonda Warns Against Arctic Oil Drilling take part Retrieved July Jump up Jane Fonda slams Justin Trudeau 'Don't be fooled by good looking liberals' The Telegraph January Jump up My life so far Random House ISBN Jump up Yardley Jonathan April First Person Singular The Washington Post Jump up Dowd Maureen April 'My Life So Far' The Roles of a Lifetime The New York Times Retrieved December Jump up Marianne Schnall March Jane Fonda on Joining the Blogosphere Huffington Post Retrieved April Jump up Amazon com Prime Time August Random House ISBN Jump up Jane Fonda Foundation Targeted by The Smoking Gun NPQ December accessed February Jump up Answering Attacks on my Credibility as a Philanthropist JaneFonda com December Jump up Jane Fonda's Philanthropy A Hollywood Legend Keys in on Reproductive Health Inside Philanthropy Ade Adeniji October Jump up Guide to Top Funders Inside Philanthropy Jump up Jane Fonda Marries Frenchman The Miami News August dead link Jump up Fonda p Jump up Fonda Gets Divorce The Palm Beach Post January dead link Jump up Jane Fonda Weds Chicago Member Gadsden Times January Jump up Fonda p Jump up Tyrangiel Josh April Being Jane Time Retrieved December Jump up Fonda pp Jump up Star Tracks People July Archived from the original on October Jump up Ted Turner Jane Fonda Tie Not Observer Reporter December Jump up Jane Fonda Gets Divorce From Turner Bangor Daily News May Jump up 'Busy' Jane Fonda Puts Wedding On Hold Daily Express London October Jump up Prime Time Oscars Jane Fonda February Jump up Jane Fonda and Richard Perry Split After Years People Magazine January Jump up About My Faith Janefonda com Retrieved March Jump up Upaya Zen Center Retreat Janefonda com Retrieved February Jump up New Year's Resolution Janefonda com Retrieved March Jump up Every Day Health October http www everydayhealth com eating disorders jane fonda opens up about her decades long battle with bulimia aspx Missing or empty title help Jump up Daily Mail April http www dailymail co uk femail article Jane Fonda reveals told diet father stepmothers led developing eating disorders html Missing or empty title help Jump up Jane Fonda suffers from breast cancer The Daily Telegraph November Jump up Jane Fonda The Private Life of a Public Woman Patricia Bosworth Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Pg Jump up Past Recipients Crystal Award Women In Film Archived from the original on June Retrieved May Jump up to a b California Hall of Fame biography of Jane Fonda Jump up Leaders for the st Century Seven Who Change Their Worlds Women's eNews December Jump up An Exceptional Palme d'Or to Jane Fonda festival cannes fr May Retrieved October Jump up Jack Nicholson Jane Fonda inducted into California Hall of Fame Celebrity Com December Jump up National German Sustainability Award Jump up AFI Life Achievement Awards American Film Institute December accessed January Jump up 'Lebenswerk International' Jane Fonda Goldene Kamera in German Retrieved March Bibliography edit Andersen Christopher Citizen Jane Henry Holt and Company brandee brandi-edwards brandy-alexandre brandy-dean brandy-lee brandy-smile brandy-wine ISBN Collier Peter The Fondas A Hollywood Dynasty Putnam ISBN Davidson Bill Jane Fonda An Intimate Biography New American Library ISBN Fine Carla and Jane Fonda Strong Smart and Bold Empowering Girls for Life Collins ISBN Fonda Jane My Life So Far Random House ISBN Fonda Jane Jane Fonda's Workout Book Random House Value Publishing ISBN Fonda Jane with Mignon McCarthy Women Coming of Age Random House Value Publishing ISBN Fox Mary Virginia and Mary Molina Jane Fonda Something to Fight for Dillon Press ISBN Freedland Michael Jane Fonda The Many Lives of One of Hollywood's Greatest Stars HarperCollins Publishers ISBN French Sean Jane Fonda A Biography Trafalgar Square Publishing ISBN Gilmore John Laid Bare A Memoir of Wrecked Lives and the Hollywood Death Trip Amok Books ISBN Hershberger Mary Peace work war myths Jane Fonda and the antiwar movement Peace Change Vol No July Hershberger Mary Jane Fonda's War A Political Biography of an Antiwar Icon New Press ISBN Kiernan Thomas Jane an intimate biography of Jane Fonda Putnam ISBN Lembcke Jerry Hanoi Jane War Sex and Fantasies of Betrayal Culture Politics and the Cold War Amherst University of Massachusetts Press ISBN External links edit Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jane Fonda Wikiquote has quotations related to Jane Fonda Official website Jane Fonda at the Internet Movie Database Jane Fonda at the Internet Broadway Database Edit this at Wikidata Jane Fonda at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection Appearances on C SPAN Jane Fonda on Charlie Rose Works by or about Jane Fonda in libraries WorldCat catalog Jane Fonda collected news and commentary The New York Times Jane Fonda Profile at Turner Classic Movies About com article about Fonda's Vietnam era activities Jane Fonda and Gloria Steinem discuss The Women's Media Center their non profit media organization video Fonda Family Genealogy Photo gallery at CBS News Jane Fonda Video produced by Makers Women Who Make America An Interview with Jane Fonda on Gender show v
t e Hosts of the Academy Awards ceremonies show v t e Hosts of the Tony Awards ceremonies show v t e Anti nuclear movement in the United States show Awards for Jane Fonda Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF LCCN n ISNI X GND SELIBR SUDOC BNF cb s data ULAN NLA NDL NKC jn BNE XX Categories births th century American actresses st century American actresses Actresses from New York Activists for African American civil rights American anti Iraq War activists American anti Vietnam War activists American exercise instructors American film actresses American people of Dutch descent American people of Frisian descent Art Students League of New York alumni Best Actress BAFTA Award winners Best Actress Academy Award winners Best Drama Actress Golden Globe film winners Breast cancer survivors California Democrats COINTELPRO targets Counterculture of the s Emma Willard School alumni Feminist artists Living people Native Americans' rights activists Outstanding Performance by a Lead Actress in a Miniseries or Movie Primetime Emmy Award winners Progressivism in the United States American socialists Writers from Atlanta Julia is a American drama film directed by Fred Zinnemann from a screenplay by Alvin Sargent It is based on Lillian Hellman's book Pentimento A chapter of Pentimento tells the story of her relationship with a lifelong friend Julia who fought against the Nazis in the years prior to World War II Hellman said the story was true but critics have challenged its accuracy The film in DeLuxe Color was produced by Richard Roth with Julien Derode as executive producer and Tom Pevsner as associate producer Julia was received positively from the critics and was nominated for eleven Academy Awards including Best Picture Best Director for Fred Zinnemann and Best Actress for Jane Fonda It ended up winning three awards Best Supporting Actor for Jason Robards Best Supporting Actress for Vanessa Redgrave and Best Adapted Screenplay for Alvin Sargent's script Julia was the first film to win both supporting actor categories since The Last Picture Show six years earlier in and would be followed by Hannah and Her Sisters nine years later in Contents hide Plot Cast Production and veracity controversy Reception Awards References External links Plot edit The young Lillian and her friend Julia daughter of a wealthy family being brought up by her grandparents in the U S enjoy a childhood together and an extremely close relationship in late adolescence Later while medical student physician Julia Vanessa Redgrave attends Oxford and the University of Vienna and studies with such luminaries as Sigmund Freud Lillian Jane Fonda a struggling writer suffers through revisions of her play with her mentor and sometime lover famed author Dashiell Hammett Jason Robards at a beachhouse Later during the Nazi era Lillian has become a celebrated playwright and is invited to a writers' conference in Russia Julia having taken on the battle against Nazism enlists Lillian en route to smuggle money into Nazi Germany to assist the anti Nazi cause It is a dangerous mission especially for a Jewish intellectual on her way to Russia Lillian departs for Russia via Berlin and the movements of her person and placement of her possessions a hat and a box of candy are carefully guided by compatriots of Julia through border crossings and inspections In Berlin Lillian is told to go to a cafe where she finds Julia They are able to speak only briefly Julia tells her that the money she has brought will save to people Lillian also learns that Julia has a daughter Lily who is living with a baker in Alsace After Lilian leaves Julia in the cafe and boards the train to Moscow a man tells her to avoid passing through Germany again after she leaves Russia When she reaches London Lillian is informed that Julia has been killed The details of her death are shrouded in secrecy Lillian unsuccessfully looks for Julia's daughter in Alsace She returns to the United States and is reunited with Dashiel Hammett She is haunted by her memories of Julia and is distraught over not having found Julia's baby She is shocked that Julia's family pretends not to remember Lillian clearly wanting to excise from their memory a daughter who refused to conform at a time when nonconformity could prevent the murder of many innocent people The film ends with an image of Lillian Hellman seated in a boat alone fishing She reveals in voiceover that she continued to live with Hammett for another years and outlived him by several more Cast edit Jane Fonda as Lillian Hellman Vanessa Redgrave as Julia Jason Robards as Dashiell Hammett Maximilian Schell as Johann Hal Holbrook as Alan Campbell Rosemary Murphy as Dorothy Parker Meryl Streep as Anne Marie John Glover as Sammy Lisa Pelikan as Julia younger Susan Jones as Lillian younger Lambert Wilson as Walter Franz Julia features the first film performances of Meryl Streep and Lisa Pelikan Production and veracity controversy edit The film was shot on location in England and France Although Lillian Hellman claimed the story was based on true events that occurred early in her life the filmmakers later came lara-roxx lara-stevens lataya-roxx latoya to believe that most of it was fictionalized Director Fred Zinnemann would later comment Lillian Hellman in her own mind owned half the Spanish Civil War while Hemingway owned the other half She would portray herself in situations that were not true An extremely talented brilliant writer but she was a phony character I'm sorry to say My relations with her were very guarded and ended in pure hatred The film Julia was based on the Julia chapter of Pentimento On June as the film was going into production Hellman wrote about the screenplay to its producer This is not a work of fiction and certain laws have to be followed for that reason Your major difficulty to me is the treatment of Lillian as the leading character The reason is simple no matter what she does in this story and I do not deny the danger I was in when I took the money into Germany my role was passive And nobody and nothing can change that unless you write a fictional and different story Isn't it necessary to know that I am a Jew That of course is what mainly made the danger In a television interview with Dick Cavett author Mary McCarthy long Hellman's political adversary and the object of her negative literary judgment said of Hellman that every word she writes is a lie including 'and' and 'the' Hellman responded by filing a US defamation suit against McCarthy interviewer Dick Cavett and PBS McCarthy produced evidence she said proved that Hellman had lied in some accounts of her life Cavett said he sympathized more with McCarthy than Hellman in the lawsuit but everybody lost as a result of it Norman Mailer attempted unsuccessfully to mediate the dispute through an open letter he published in the New York Times At the time of her death Hellman was still in litigation with McCarthy her executors dropped the suit In New York psychiatrist Muriel Gardiner became involved in the libel suit between McCarthy and Hellman She claimed to be the model for the character named Julia in Hellman's memoirs Pentimento and in the movie Julia based on a chapter of that book Hellman who never met Gardiner said that Julia was somebody else Gardiner wrote that while she never met Hellman she had often heard about her from her friend Wolf Schwabacher who was Hellman's lawyer By Gardiner's account Schwabacher had visited Gardiner in Vienna After Muriel Gardiner and Joseph Buttinger moved into their house at Brookdale Farm in Pennington New Jersey in they divided the house in two They rented half of it to Wolf and Ethel Schwabacher for more than ten years Many people believe that Hellmann based her story on Gardiner's life Gardiner's editor cited the unlikelihood that there were two millionaire American women who were medical students in Vienna in the late s Reception edit The film earned million in North American rentals It currently holds a rating on Rotten Tomatoes The response varied from positive to mixed usually praising the period setting and acting but criticizing the script and failure to adequately portray the friendship between the two leads Variety gave it a positive review praising Jane Fonda and Vanessa Redgrave as being dynamite together on the screen Richard Roth's production as handsome and tasteful as well as the period costumes and production design Roger Ebert called the film a fascinating story but felt the movie suffered from being told by Lillian Hellman's point of view The film never really establishes a relationship between the two women he wrote It's awkward the way the movie has to suspend itself between Julia its ostensible subject and Lillian Hellman its real subject Nonetheless he gave it two and a half out of three stars TV Guide gave it three out of five stars and declared it Beautifully crafted nominated for eleven Academy Awards a big hit at the box office and a dramatic dud If you like red nail polish faux cynicism painfully brave smiles and European train stations Julia may be your kind of cocktail Awards edit Academy Awards Jason Robards for Best Actor in a Supporting Role Vanessa Redgrave for Best Actress in a Supporting Role Alvin Sargent for Best Adapted Screenplay Academy Award nominations Best Picture Richard Roth producer Fred Zinnemann for Best Director Jane Fonda for Best Actress in a Leading Role Maximilian Schell for Best Actor in a Supporting Role Douglas Slocombe for Best Cinematography Anthea Sylbert for Best Costume Design Walter Murch for Best Film Editing Georges Delerue for Best Music Original Score After Redgrave was nominated for Best Supporting Actress the Jewish Defense League objected to her nomination because she had narrated and helped fund a documentary entitled The Palestinian which supported a Palestinian state They also picketed the Oscar ceremony It also won the BAFTA Award for Best Film References edit Jump up Aubrey Solomon Twentieth Century Fox A Corporate and Financial History Scarecrow Press p Jump up Julia Box Office Mojo Retrieved Jump up ''Fred Zinnemann interviews'' University Press of Mississippi p Books google com Retrieved Jump up Austenfeld American Women Writers pp Jump up to a b c Martinson Lillian Hellman pp Jump up
Norman Mailer An Appeal to Lillian Hellman and Mary McCarthy nytimes com May accessed December Jump up Frances Kiernan Seeing Mary Plain nytimes com accessed November Jump up to a b McDowell Edwin April New Memoir Stirs 'Julia' Controversy New York Times Retrieved December Jump up Muriel Gardiner Code Name Mary Memoirs of an American Woman in the Austrian Underground Yale University Press xv xvi Jump up Solomon p Jump up https www rottentomatoes com m julia Jump up http variety com film reviews julia Jump up http www rogerebert com reviews julia Jump up http www tvguide com movies julia review Jump up Marcel Durham is listed as an editor for the film in some credit listings for Julia including the credits database of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts Sciences AMPAS However he is not listed as a nominee for the Academy Award in the AMPAS awards database see Academy Awards Database th Retrieved Jump up Vanessa Redgrave's controversial Oscar speech ABC Los Angeles Retrieved External links edit Mary Louise Meryl Streep born June is an American actress and philanthropist Cited in the media as the best actress of her generation a designation to which she objects Streep is particularly known for her versatility in her roles transformation into the characters she plays and her accent adaptation Nominated for Academy Awards Streep has more nominations than any other actor or actress and is one of the six actors to have won three or more competitive Oscars for acting Streep has also received Golden Globe nominations winning eight more nominations and more competitive wins than any actor or actress Streep made her professional stage debut in Trelawny of the Wells in and in received a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actress in a Play for Wagons Full of Cotton She made her screen debut in the television film The Deadliest Season and made her film debut later that same year in Julia In she won an Emmy Award for her role in the miniseries Holocaust and received her first Academy Award nomination for The Deer Hunter She margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix went on

to win Best Supporting Actress for Kramer vs Kramer and Best Actress for Sophie's Choice and The Iron Lady Streep's other Oscar nominated roles were in The French Lieutenant's Woman Silkwood Out of Africa Ironweed Evil Angels Postcards from the Edge The Bridges of Madison County One True Thing Music of the Heart Adaptation The Devil Wears Prada Doubt Julie Julia August Osage County Into the Woods and Florence Foster Jenkins She returned to the stage for the first time in over years in The Public Theater's revival of The Seagull won a second Emmy Award in for the HBO miniseries Angels in America and starred in The Public Theater's production of Mother Courage and Her Children Streep was awarded the AFI Life Achievement Award in the Gala Tribute from the Film Society of Lincoln Center in and the Kennedy Center Honor in for her contribution to American culture through performing arts President Barack Obama awarded her the National Medal of Arts and in the Presidential Medal of Freedom In the government of France made her a Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters In Streep was awarded the Golden Globe Cecil B DeMille Award Contents hide Early life Career s Theater and film debut Breakthrough s Rise to stardom Out of Africa and backlash s Unsuccessful comedies and The Bridges of Madison County Late s s s Acting style and legacy Other work Personal life Awards and nominations See also Notes References Sources External links Early life edit Mary Louise Streep was born on June in Summit New Jersey the daughter of Mary Wolf Wilkinson a commercial artist and art editor and Harry William Streep Jr a pharmaceutical executive The eldest child she has two younger brothers Dana David and Harry William III Meryl Streep as a senior in high school Streep's father Harry was of German and Swiss ancestry Her father's lineage traces back to Loffenau Germany from where her second great grandfather Gottfried Streeb immigrated to the United States and where one of her ancestors served as mayor the surname was later changed to Streep Another line of her father's family was from Giswil Switzerland Her mother had English German and Irish ancestry Some of Streep's maternal ancestors lived in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island and were descended from th century immigrants from England Her eighth great grandfather Lawrence Wilkinson was one of the first Europeans to settle in Rhode Island Streep is also a distant relative of William Penn the founder of Pennsylvania records show that her family is among the first purchasers of land in the state Streep's maternal great great grandparents Manus McFadden and Grace Strain the namesake of Streep's second daughter were natives of the Horn Head district of Dunfanaghy Ireland Streep's mother whom she has compared in both appearance and manner to Dame Judi Dench strongly encouraged her daughter and instilled confidence in her from a very young age Streep has said She was a mentor because she said to me 'Meryl you're capable You're so great ' She was saying 'You can do whatever you put your mind to If you're lazy you're not going to get it done But if you put your mind to it you can do anything ' And I believed her Although Streep was naturally more introverted than her mother at times when she later needed an injection of confidence in adulthood she would consult her mother asking her for advice Streep was raised as a Presbyterian in Basking Ridge New Jersey and attended Cedar Hill Elementary School and the Oak Street School which was a Junior High school back then In her Junior High debut she starred as Lousie Heller in the play The Family Upstairs In the family moved to Bernardsville New Jersey where she attended Bernards High School Author Karina Longworth described her as a gawky kid with glasses and frizzy hair yet noted that she liked to show off in front of the camera in family home movies from a young age At the age of Streep was selected to sing at a school recital leading to her having opera lessons from Estelle Liebling However despite her talent she remarked that I was singing something I didn't feel and understand That was an important lesson not to do that To find the thing that I could feel through She quit after four years Streep had many Catholic school friends and regularly attended mass Streep as a cheerleader at Bernards High School Although in high school Streep appeared in numerous school plays she was uninterested in serious theatre until acting in the play Miss Julie at Vassar College in in which she gained attention across the campus Vassar drama professor Clinton J Atkinson noted I don't think anyone ever taught Meryl acting She really taught herself Streep demonstrated an early ability to mimic accents and to quickly memorize her lines She received her BA cum laude from the college in before applying for an MFA from the Yale School of Drama At Yale she supplemented her course fees by waitressing and typing and appeared in over a dozen stage productions a year to the point that she became overworked developing ulcers She contemplated quitting acting and switching to study law Streep played a variety of roles onstage from Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream to an year old woman in a wheelchair in a comedy written by then unknown playwrights Christopher Durang and Albert Innaurato One of her teachers was Robert Lewis one of the co founders of the Actors Studio Streep disapproved of some of the acting exercises she was asked to do remarking that the professors delved into personal lives in a way I find obnoxious She received her MFA from Yale in Streep also enrolled as a visiting student at Dartmouth College in the fall of and received an Honorary Doctor of Arts degree from the college in Career edit See also Meryl Streep on screen and stage s edit Theater and film debut edit Streep in One of Meryl Streep’s first professional jobs in after Yale was at the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center's National Playwrights Conference during which she acted in five plays over six weeks Streep moved to New York City in and was cast by Joseph Papp in a production of Trelawny of the Wells at the Public Theater opposite Mandy Patinkin and John Lithgow She went on to appear in five more roles in her first year in New York including in Papp's New York Shakespeare Festival productions of Henry V The Taming of the Shrew with Raúl Juliá and Measure for Measure opposite Sam Waterston and John Cazale She entered into a relationship with Cazale at this time and resided with him until his death three years later She starred in the musical Happy End on Broadway and won an Obie for her performance in the off Broadway play Alice at the Palace Although she had not set out for a film career Robert De Niro's performance in Taxi Driver had a profound impact on young Streep who said to herself that's the kind of actor I want to be when I grow up Streep began auditioning for film roles and underwent an unsuccessful audition for the lead role in Dino De Laurentiis's King Kong Laurentiis stated in Italian to his son This is so ugly Why did you bring me this Unknown to Laurentiis Streep understood Italian and she remarked I'm very sorry that I'm not ashley-winger ashlyn-gere astrid-bone athena-star aubrey-nichols as beautiful as I should be but you know this is it This is what you get She continued to work on Broadway appearing in the double bill of Tennessee Williams' Wagons Full of Cotton and Arthur Miller's A Memory of Two Mondays For the former she received a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play nomination Streep's other Broadway credits include Anton Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard and the Bertolt Brecht Kurt Weill musical Happy End in which she had originally appeared off Broadway at the Chelsea Theater Center She received Drama Desk Award nominations for both productions Streep's first feature film role came opposite Jane Fonda in the film Julia in which she had a small role during a flashback sequence Most of her scenes were edited out but the brief time on screen horrified the actress I had a bad wig and they took the words from the scene I shot with Jane and put them in my mouth in a different scene I thought I've made a terrible mistake no more movies I hate this business However Streep cites Fonda as having a lasting influence on her as an actress and has credited her as open ing probably more doors than I probably even know about Breakthrough edit Robert De Niro who had spotted Streep in her stage production of The Cherry Orchard suggested that she play the role of his girlfriend in the war film The Deer Hunter Cazale who had been diagnosed with lung cancer was also cast in the film and Streep took on the role of a vague stock girlfriend to remain with Cazale for the duration of filming Longworth notes that Streep made a case for female empowerment by playing a woman to whom empowerment was a foreign concept a normal lady from an average American small town for whom subservience was the only thing she knew Pauline Kael who would later become a strong critic of Streep's remarked that Streep was a real beauty who brought much freshness to the film with her performance The film's success exposed Streep to a wider audience and earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress In the miniseries Holocaust Streep played the leading role of a German woman married to a Jewish artist in Nazi era Germany She found the material to be unrelentingly noble and professed to have taken on the role for financial gain Streep travelled to Germany and Austria for filming while Cazale remained in New York Upon her return Streep found that Cazale's illness had progressed and she nursed him until his death on March With an estimated audience of million Holocaust brought a wider degree of public recognition to Streep who found herself on the verge of national visibility She won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie for her performance Despite the awards success Streep was still not enthusiastic towards her film career and preferred acting on stage Hoping to divert herself from the grief of Cazale's death Streep accepted a role in The Seduction of Joe Tynan as the chirpy love interest of Alan Alda later commenting that she played it on automatic pilot She performed the role of Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew for Shakespeare in the Park and also played a supporting role in Manhattan for Woody Allen Streep later said that Allen did not provide her with a complete script giving her only the six pages of her own scenes and did not permit her to improvise a word of her dialogue In the drama Kramer vs Kramer Streep was cast opposite Dustin Hoffman as an unhappily married woman who abandons her husband and child Streep thought that the script portrayed the female character as too evil and insisted that it was not representative of real women who faced marriage breakdown and child custody battles The makers agreed with her and the script was revised In preparing for the part Streep spoke to her own mother about her life as a wife with a career and frequented the Upper East Side neighborhood in which the film was set watching the interactions between parents and children The director Robert Benton allowed Streep to write her own dialogue in two
key scenes despite some objection from Hoffman who hated her guts a Jaffee and Hoffman later spoke of Streep's tirelessness with Hoffman commenting She's extraordinarily hardworking to the extent that she's obsessive I think that she thinks about nothing else but what she's doing The film was controversial among feminists but it was a role which film critic Stephen Farber believed displayed Streep's own emotional intensity writing that she was one of the rare performers who can imbue the most routine moments with a hint of mystery For Kramer vs Kramer Streep won both the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress and the Academy Award which she famously left in the ladies room after giving her speech She was also awarded the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress and National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress for her collective work in her three film releases of Both The Deer Hunter and Kramer vs Kramer were major commercial successes and were the consecutive winners of the Academy Award for Best Picture s edit Rise to stardom edit In Streep began workshopping Alice in Concert a musical version of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with writer and composer Elizabeth Swados and director Joseph Papp the show was put on at New York's Public Theater from December Frank Rich of The New York Times referred to Streep as the one wonder of the production but questioned why she had devoted so much energy to it By Streep had progressed to leading roles in films She was featured on the cover of Newsweek magazine with the headline A Star for the s with Jack Kroll commenting There's a sense of mystery in her acting she doesn't simply imitate although she's a great mimic in private She transmits a sense of danger a primal unease lying just below the surface of normal behavior Streep denounced the fervent media coverage of her at this time as excessive hype The story within a story drama The French Lieutenant's Woman was Streep's first adele-wiesenthal adeline-lange adeline-pollicina leading role The film paired Streep with Jeremy Irons as contemporary actors telling their modern story as well as the Victorian era drama they were performing Streep perfected an English accent for the part but considered herself a misfit for the role I couldn't help wishing that I was more beautiful b A New York magazine article commented that while many female stars of the past had cultivated a singular identity in their films Streep was a chameleon willing to play any type of role Streep was awarded a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for her work The following year she reunited with Robert Benton for the psychological thriller Still of the Night co starring Roy Scheider and Jessica Tandy Vincent Canby writing for The New York Times noted that the film was an homage to the works of Alfred Hitchcock but that one of its main weaknesses was a lack of chemistry between Streep and Scheider concluding that Streep is stunning but she's not on screen anywhere near long enough Greater success came later in the year when Streep starred in the drama Sophie's Choice also portraying a Polish holocaust survivor caught in a love triangle between a young naive writer Peter MacNicol and a Jewish intellectual Kevin Kline Streep's emotional dramatic performance and her apparent mastery of a Polish accent drew praise William Styron wrote the novel with Ursula Andress in mind for the role of Sophie but Streep was determined to get the role Streep filmed the choice scene in one take and refused to do it again finding it extremely painful and emotionally exhausting The scene in which Streep is ordered by an SS guard at Auschwitz to choose which one of her two children would be gassed and which would proceed to the labor camp is her most famous scene according to Emma Brockes of The Guardian who wrote in It's classic Streep the kind of scene that makes your scalp tighten but defter in a way is her handling of smaller harder to grasp emotions Among several acting awards Streep won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance and her characterization was voted the third greatest movie performance of all time by Premiere magazine Roger Ebert said of her delivery Streep plays the Brooklyn scenes with an enchanting Polish American accent she has the first accent I've ever wanted to hug and she plays the flashbacks in subtitled German and Polish There is hardly an emotion that Streep doesn't touch in this movie and yet we're never aware of her straining This is one of the most astonishing and yet one of the most unaffected and natural performances I can imagine Pauline Kael on the contrary called the film an infuriatingly bad movie and thought that Streep decorporealizes herself which she believed explained why her movie heroines don't seem to be full characters and why there are no incidental joys to be had from watching her Streep in The year saw Streep play her first non fictional character the nuclear whistleblower and labor union activist Karen Silkwood who died in a suspicious car accident while investigating alleged wrongdoing at the Kerr McGee plutonium plant in Mike Nichols's biographical film Silkwood Streep felt a personal connection to Silkwood and in preparation she met with people close to the woman and in doing so realized that each person saw a different aspect of her personality She said I didn't try to turn myself into Karen I just tried to look at what she did I put together every piece of information I could find about her What I finally did was look at the events in her life and try to understand her from the inside Jack Kroll of Newsweek considered Streep's characterization to have been brilliant while Silkwood's boyfriend Drew Stephens expressed approval in that Streep had played Karen as a human being rather than a myth despite Karen's father Bill thinking that Streep and the film had dumbed his daughter down Pauline Kael believed that Streep had been miscast Streep next played opposite Robert De Niro in the romance Falling in Love which was poorly received and portrayed a fighter for the French Resistance during World kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle War II in the British drama Plenty adapted from the play by David Hare For the latter Roger Ebert wrote that she conveyed great subtlety it is hard to play an unbalanced neurotic self destructive woman and do it with such gentleness and charm Streep creates a whole character around a woman who could have simply been a catalogue of symptoms In Molly Haskell praised Streep's performance in Plenty believing it to be one of Streep's most difficult and ambiguous films and most feminist role Out of Africa and backlash edit Longworth considers Streep's next release Out of Africa to have established her as a Hollywood superstar In the film Streep starred as the Danish writer Karen Blixen opposite Robert Redford's Denys Finch Hatton Director Sydney Pollack was initially dubious about Streep in the role as he did not think she was sexy enough and had considered Jane Seymour for the part Pollack recalls that Streep impressed him in a different way She was so direct so honest so without bullshit There was no shielding between her and me Streep and Pollack often clashed during the day shoot in Kenya particularly over Blixen's voice Streep had spent much time listening to tapes of Blixen and began speaking in an old fashioned and aristocratic fashion which Pollack thought excessive A significant commercial and critical success the film earned Streep another Academy Award nomination for Best Actress and won as the Best Picture Critic Stanley Kaufmann wrote Meryl Streep is back in top form This means her performance in Out of Africa is at the highest level of acting in film today Longworth notes that the dramatic success of Out of Africa led to a backlash of critical opinion against Streep in the years that followed especially as she was now demanding million a picture Unlike other stars at the time such as Sylvester Stallone and Tom Cruise Streep never seemed to play herself and certain critics felt her technical finesse led people to literally see her acting Her next films did not appeal to a wide audience she co starred with Jack Nicholson in the dramas Heartburn and Ironweed in which she sang onscreen for the first time since the television movie Secret Service In Evil Angels c she played Lindy Chamberlain an Australian woman who had been convicted of the murder of her infant daughter despite claiming that the baby had been taken by a dingo Filmed in Australia Streep won the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role a Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival and the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress Streep has said of perfecting the Australian accent in the film I had to study a little bit for Australian because it's not dissimilar to American so it's like coming from Italian to Spanish You get a little mixed up Vincent Canby of The New York Times referred to her performance as another stunning performance played with the kind of virtuosity that seems to redefine the possibilities of screen acting In Streep lobbied to play the lead role in Oliver Stone's adaption of the play Evita but two months before filming was due to commence she dropped out citing exhaustion initially although it was later revealed that there was a dispute over her salary By the end of the decade Streep actively looked to star in a comedy She found the role in She Devil a satire that parodied Hollywood's obsession with beauty and cosmetic surgery in which she played a glamorous writer Though not a success Richard Corliss of Time wrote that Streep was the one reason to see the film and observed that it marked a departure from the dramatic roles she was known to play Reacting to her string of poorly received films Streep said Audiences are shrinking as the marketing strategy defines more and more narrowly who they want to reach males from to it's become a chicken and egg syndrome Which came first First they release all these summer movies then do a demographic survey of who's going to see them s edit Unsuccessful comedies and The Bridges of Madison County edit Meryl Streep at the nd Grammy Awards in Biographer Karen Hollinger described the early s as a downturn in the popularity of Streep's films attributing this partly to a critical perception that her comedies had been an attempt to convey a lighter image following several serious but commercially unsuccessful dramas and more significantly to the lack of options available to an actress in her forties Streep commented that she had limited her options by her preference to work in Los Angeles close to her family a situation that she had anticipated in a interview when she commented By the time an actress hits her mid forties no one's interested in her anymore And if you want to fit a couple of babies into that schedule as well you've got to pick your parts with great care At the Screen Actor's Guild National Women's Conference in Streep keynoted the first national event emphasizing the decline in women's work opportunities pay parity and role models within the film industry She criticized the film industry for downplaying the importance of women both on screen and off After roles in the comedy drama Postcards barett-moore bea-fiedler beata beatrice-poggi from the Edge and the comedy fantasy Defending

Your Life Streep starred with Goldie Hawn in farcical black comedy Death Becomes Her with Bruce Willis as their co star Streep persuaded writer David Koepp to rewrite several of the scenes particularly the one in which her character has an affair with a younger man which she believed was unrealistically male in its conception The seven month shoot was the longest of Streep's career during which she got into character by thinking about being slightly pissed off all of the time Due to Streep's allergies to numerous cosmetics special prosthetics had to be designed to age her by ten years to look although Streep believed that they made her look nearer Longworth considers Death Becomes Her to have been the most physical performance Streep had yet committed to screen all broad weeping smirking and eye rolling Although it was a commercial success earning million in just five days Streep's contribution to comedy was generally not
taken well by critics Time's Richard Corliss wrote approvingly of Streep's wicked witch routine but dismissed the film as She Devil with a make over and one which hates women Streep appeared with Jeremy Irons Glenn Close and Winona Ryder in The House of the Spirits set during the military dictatorship of Chile The film was not well received by critics Anthony Lane of The New Yorker wrote This is really quite an achievement It brings together Jeremy Irons Meryl Streep Winona Ryder Antonio Banderas and Vanessa Redgrave and insures that without exception they all give their worst performances ever The following year Streep featured in The River Wild as the mother of children on a whitewater rafting trip who encounter two violent criminals Kevin Bacon and John C Reilly in the wilderness Though critical reaction was generally mixed Peter Travers of Rolling Stone found her to be strong sassy and looser than she has ever been onscreen Streep's most successful film of the decade was the romance The Bridges of Madison County directed by Clint Eastwood who adapted the film from Robert James Waller's novel of the same name It relates the story of Robert Kincaid Eastwood a photographer working for National Geographic who has a love affair with a middle aged Italian farm wife in Iowa named Francesca Streep Though Streep disliked the novel it was based on she found the script to be a special opportunity for an actress her age She gained weight for the part and dressed differently from the character in the book to emulate voluptuous Italian film stars such as Sophia Loren Both Loren and Anna Magnani were an influence in her portrayal and Streep viewed Pier Paolo Pasolini's Mamma Roma prior to filming The film was a box office hit and grossed over million in the United States The film unlike the novel was warmly received by critics Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote that Eastwood had managed to create a moving elegiac love story at the heart of Mr Waller's self congratulatory overkill while Joe Morgenstern of The Wall Street Journal described it as one of the most pleasurable films in recent memory Longworth believes that Streep's performance was crucial to transforming what could have been a weak soap opera into a vibrant work of historical fiction implicitly critiquing postwar America's stifling culture of domesticity She considers it to have been the role in which Streep became arguably the first middle aged actress to be taken seriously by Hollywood as a romantic heroine Late s edit Streep played the estranged sister of Bessie Diane Keaton a woman battling leukemia in Marvin's Room an adaptation of the play by Scott McPherson Streep recommended Keaton for the role The film also featured Leonardo DiCaprio as the rebellious son of Streep's character Roger Ebert stated that Streep and Keaton in their different styles find ways to make Lee and Bessie into much more than the expression of their problems The film was well received and Streep earned another Golden Globe nomination for her performance As an Irishwoman Streep acted opposite Michael Gambon and Catherine McCormack chloe-kez chloe-stevens chris-collins chris-jordan chris-petersen chrissie-beauchamp christa-abel in Pat O'Connor's Dancing at Lughnasa which was entered into the Venice Film Festival in its year of release Janet Maslin of The New York Times remarked that Meryl Streep has made many a grand acting gesture in her career but the way she simply peers out a window in Dancing at Lughnasa ranks with the best Everything the viewer need know about Kate Mundy the woman she plays here is written on that prim lonely face and its flabbergasted gaze Later that year Streep played a cancer sufferer caught in a difficult family situation playing the mother of Renée Zellweger and wife of William Hurt in One True Thing The film gained positive reviews Mick LaSalle in the San Francisco Chronicle declared After 'One True Thing' critics who persist in the fiction that Streep is a cold and technical actress will need to get their heads examined She is so instinctive and natural so thoroughly in the moment and operating on flights of inspiration that she's able to give us a woman who's

at once wildly idiosyncratic and utterly believable Los Angeles Times film critic Kenneth Turan noted that Streep's role is one of the least self consciously dramatic and surface showy of her career but that she adds a level of honesty and reality that makes her performance one of her most moving Streep portrayed Roberta Guaspari a real life New Yorker who found passion and enlightenment teaching violin to the inner city kids of East Harlem in the music drama Music of the Heart A departure from director Wes Craven's previous work in films like A Nightmare on Elm Street and the Scream series Streep replaced singer Madonna who left the project before filming began due to creative differences with Craven Required to perform on the violin Streep went through two months of intense training five to six hours a day Streep received nominations for an Academy Award a Golden Globe and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her performance Roger Ebert wrote that Meryl Streep is known for her mastery of accents she may be the most versatile speaker in the movies Here you might think she has no accent unless you've heard her real speaking voice then you realize that Guaspari's speaking style is no less a particular achievement than Streep's other accents This is not Streep's voice but someone else's with a certain flat quality as if later education and refinement came after a somewhat unsophisticated childhood s edit Main article Meryl Streep in the s edit Streep entered the s with an uncredited voice cameo in Steven Spielberg's A I Artificial Intelligence a science fiction film about a childlike android played by Haley Joel Osment The same year Streep co hosted the annual Nobel Peace Prize Concert with Liam Neeson which was held in Oslo Norway on December in honour of the Nobel Peace Prize laureate the United Nations and Kofi Annan In Streep returned to the stage for the first time in more than twenty years playing Arkadina in The Public Theater's revival of Anton Chekhov's The Seagull directed by Mike Nichols and co starring Kevin Kline Natalie Portman and Philip Seymour Hoffman The same year she began work on Spike Jonze's comedy drama Adaptation in which she portrayed real life journalist Susan Orlean Lauded by critics and viewers alike the film won Streep her fourth Golden Globe in the Best Supporting Actress category A O Scott in The New York Times considered Streep's portrayal of Orlean to have been played with impish composure noting the contrast in her wittily realized character with love interest Chris Cooper's lank haired toothless charisma as the autodidact arrested for poaching rare orchids Streep appeared alongside Nicole Kidman and Julianne Moore in Stephen Daldry's The Hours based on the novel by Michael Cunningham Focusing on three women of different generations whose lives are interconnected by the novel Mrs Dalloway by Virginia Woolf the film was generally well received and won all three leading actresses a Silver Bear for Best Actress Streep had a cameo as herself in the Farrelly brothers comedy Stuck on You and reunited with Mike Nichols to star with Al Pacino and Emma Thompson in the HBO adaptation of Tony Kushner's six hour play Angels in America the story of two couples whose relationships dissolve amidst the backdrop of Reagan Era politics Streep who was cast in four roles in the mini series received her second Emmy Award and fifth Golden Globe for her performance She appeared in Jonathan Demme's moderately successful remake of The Manchurian Candidate co starring Denzel Washington playing the role of a woman who is both a U S senator and the manipulative ruthless mother of a vice presidential candidate The same year she played the supporting role of Aunt Josephine in Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events alongside Jim Carrey based on the first three novels in Snicket's book series The black comedy received generally favorable reviews from critics and won the Academy Award for Best Makeup Inspired by her love of Giverny in France and Claude Monet Streep did the narration for the film Monet's Palate with Alice Waters Steve Wynn Daniel Boulud and Helen Rappel Bordman Streep was next cast in the comedy film Prime directed by Ben Younger In the film she played Lisa Metzger the Jewish psychoanalyst of a divorced and lonesome business woman played by Uma Thurman who enters a relationship with Metzger's year old son Bryan Greenberg A modest mainstream success it eventually grossed US million internationally Roger Ebert noted how Streep had that ability to cut through the solemnity of a scene with a zinger that reveals how all human effort is edit In August and September Streep starred onstage at The Public Theater's production of Mother Courage and Her Children at the Delacorte Theatre in Central Park The Public Theater production was a new translation by playwright Tony Kushner Angels in America with songs in the Weill Brecht style written by composer Jeanine Tesori Caroline or Change veteran director George C Wolfe was at the helm Streep starred alongside Kevin Kline and Austin Pendleton in this three and a half hour play Around the same time Streep along with Lily Tomlin portrayed the last two members of what was once a popular family country music act in Robert Altman's final film A Prairie Home Companion A comedic ensemble piece featuring Lindsay Lohan Tommy Lee Jones Kevin Kline and Woody Harrelson the film revolves around the behind the scenes activities at the long running public radio show of the same name The film grossed more than US million the majority of which came from domestic markets Streep right at the Venice premiere of The Devil Wears Prada Commercially Streep fared better with a role in The Devil Wears Prada also a loose screen adaptation of Lauren Weisberger's novel of the same name Streep portrayed the powerful and demanding Miranda Priestly fashion magazine editor and boss of a recent college graduate played by Anne Hathaway Though the overall film received mixed reviews her portrayal of what Ebert calls the poised and imperious Miranda drew rave reviews from critics and earned her many award nominations including her record setting th Oscar aleena-ferari alessandra-schiavo aletta-ocean bid as well as another Golden Globe On its commercial release the film became Streep's biggest commercial success to this point grossing more than US million worldwide She portrayed a wealthy university patron in Chen Shi zheng's much delayed feature drama Dark Matter a film about a Chinese science graduate student who becomes violent after dealing with academic politics at a U S university Inspired by the events of the University of Iowa shooting and initially scheduled for a release producers and investors decided to shelve Dark Matter out of respect for the Virginia Tech massacre in April The drama received negative to mixed reviews upon its limited release Streep played a U S government official who investigates an Egyptian foreign national suspected of terrorism in the political thriller Rendition directed by Gavin Hood Keen to get involved in a thriller film Streep welcomed the opportunity to star in a film genre for which she was not usually offered scripts and immediately signed on to the project Upon its release Rendition was less commercially successful and received mixed reviews In this period Streep had a short role alongside Vanessa Redgrave Glenn Close and her eldest daughter Mamie Gummer in Lajos Koltai's drama film Evening based on the novel of the same name by Susan Minot Switching between the present and the past it tells the story of a bedridden woman who remembers her tumultuous life in the mid s The film was released to a lukewarm reaction from critics who called it beautifully filmed but decidedly dull and a colossal waste of a talented cast She had a role in Robert Redford's Lions for Lambs also a film about the connection between a platoon of United States soldiers in Afghanistan a U S senator a reporter and a California college professor Like Evening critics felt that the talent of the cast was wasted and that it suffered from slow pacing although one critic announced that Streep positively stood out being natural unforced quietly powerful in comparison to Redford's forced performance Streep with her fellow lauren-black laurence-boutin lauren-montgomery laurien-dominique laurien-wilde laurie-smith cast and all four members of ABBA at the Swedish premiere of Mamma Mia in July Streep found major commercial success when she starred in Phyllida Lloyd's Mamma Mia a film adaptation of the musical of the same name based on the songs of Swedish pop group ABBA Co starring Amanda Seyfried Pierce Brosnan Stellan Skarsgård and Colin Firth Streep played a single mother and a former girl group singer whose daughter Seyfried a bride to be who never met her father invites three likely paternal candidates to her wedding on an idyllic Greek island An instant box office success Mamma Mia became Streep's highest grossing film to date with box office receipts of US million also ranking it first among the highest grossing musical films Nominated for another Golden Globe Streep's performance was generally well received by critics with Wesley Morris of The Boston Globe commenting the greatest actor in American movies has finally become a movie star Doubt also features Streep with Philip Seymour Hoffman Amy Adams and Viola Davis A drama revolving around the stern principal nun Streep of a Bronx Catholic school in who brings accusations of pedophilia against a popular priest Hoffman the film became a moderate box office success and was hailed by many critics as one of the best films of The film received five Academy Awards nominations for its four lead actors and for Shanley's script Ebert who awarded the film the full four stars highlighted Streep's caricature of a nun who hates all inroads of the modern world while Kelly Vance of The East Bay Express remarked It's thrilling to see a pro like Streep step into an already wildly exaggerated role and then ramp it up a few notches just for the sheer hell of it Grim red eyed deathly pale Sister Aloysius may be the scariest nun of all time In Streep played chef Julia Child in Nora Ephron's Julie Julia co starring with Stanley Tucci and again with Amy Adams Tucci and Streep had worked together earlier in Devil Wears Prada The first major motion picture based on a blog Julie and Julia contrasts the life of Child in the early years of her culinary career with the life of young New Yorker Julie Powell Adams who aspires to cook all recipes in Child's cookbook Mastering the Art of French Cooking Longworth believes her caricature of Julia Child was quite possibly the biggest performance of her career while also drawing on her own experience to bring lived in truth the story of a late bloomer In Nancy Meyers' romantic comedy It's Complicated also Streep starred with Alec Baldwin and Steve Martin She received nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for both Julie Julia and It's Complicated she won the award for Julie Julia and later received her th Oscar nomination for it She also lent her voice to Mrs Felicity Fox in the stop motion film Fantastic Mr Fox s edit Streep reteamed with Mamma Mia director Phyllida Lloyd on The Iron Lady a British biographical film about Margaret Thatcher which takes a look at the Prime Minister during the Falklands War and her years in retirement Streep who observed a session at the House of Commons watching British MPs in action to prepare for her role of Thatcher called her casting a daunting and exciting challenge While the film had a mixed reception Streep's performance gained rave reviews earning her Best Actress awards at the Golden Globes and the BAFTAs as well as her third win at the th Academy Awards Former advisers friends and family of Thatcher criticized Streep's portrayal of her as inaccurate and biased The following year after Thatcher's death Streep issued a formal statement describing Thatcher's hard nosed fiscal measures and hands off approach to financial regulation while praising her personal strength and grit Streep at the th Golden Globe Awards in January Streep reunited with Prada director David Frankel on the set of the romantic comedy drama film Hope Springs co starring Tommy Lee Jones and Steve Carell Streep and Jones play a middle aged couple who attend a week of intensive marriage counseling to try to bring back the intimacy missing in their relationship Reviews for the film were mostly positive with critics praising the mesmerizing performances which offer filmgoers some grown up laughs and a thoughtful look at mature relationships In Streep starred alongside Julia Roberts and Ewan McGregor in the black comedy drama August Osage County about a dysfunctional family that reunites into the familial house when their patriarch suddenly disappears Based on Tracy Letts's Pulitzer Prize winning play of the same name Streep received positive reviews for her portrayal of the family's strong willed and contentious matriarch who is suffering from oral cancer and an addiction to narcotics and was subsequently nominated for another Golden Globe SAG and Academy Award At the National Board of Review Awards in Streep labeled Walt Disney as anti semitic and a gender bigot Former actors employees and animators who knew Disney during his lifetime rebuffed the comments as misinformed and selective The Walt Disney Family Museum issued a statement rebuking Streep's allegations indirectly citing among others Disney's contributions to Jewish charities and his published letters stating that women have the right to expect the same chances for advancement as men However Disney's grandniece Abigail Disney wholeheartedly agreed with Streep's statements stating that he was an anti Semite and racist who was also an exemplary filmmaker whose work made billions of people happy In 's The Giver a motion picture adaptation of the young adult novel Streep played a community leader Set in the social science fiction film recounts the story of a post apocalyptic community without war pain suffering differences or choice where a young boy is chosen to learn the real world Streep was aware of the book before being offered the role by co star and producer Jeff Bridges Upon its release The Giver was met with generally mixed to negative reviews from critics Streep
also had a small role in the period drama film The Homesman Set in the s midwest the film stars Hilary Swank and Tommy Lee Jones as an unusual pair who help three women driven to madness by the frontier to get back East Streep does not appear until near the end of the film playing a preacher's wife who takes the women into care The Homesman premiered at the Cannes Film Festival where it garnered largely positive reviews from critics Directed by Rob Marshall Into the Woods also is a Disney film adaptation of the Broadway musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim in which Streep plays a witch A fantasy genre crossover inspired by the Grimm Brothers' fairy tales it centers on a childless couple who sets out to end a curse placed on them by Streep's vengeful witch Though the film was dismissed by some critics such as Mark Kermode as irritating naffness Streep's performance earned her Academy Award Golden Globe SAG and Critic's Choice Award nominations for Best Supporting Actress In July it was announced that Streep would portray Maria Callas in Master Class but the project was pulled after director Mike Nichols's death in November of the same year Streep in In Streep starred in Jonathan Demme's Ricki and the Flash playing a grocery store checkout worker by day who is a rock musician at night and who has one last chance to reconnect with her estranged family Streep learned to play the guitar for the semi autobiographical drama comedy film which again featured Streep with her eldest daughter Mamie Gummer Reviews of the film were generally mixed Streep's other film of this time was director Sarah Gavron's period drama Suffragette also co starring Carey Mulligan and Helena Bonham Carter In the film she played the small but pivotal role of Emmeline Pankhurst a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote The film received mostly positive reviews particularly for the performances of the cast though its distributor earned criticism that Streep's prominent position within the marketing was misleading In February Streep was president of the main competition jury at the th Berlin International Film Festival Her only film that year was the Stephen Frears directed comedy Florence Foster Jenkins an eponymous biopic about opera singer Florence Foster Jenkins known for her painful lack of singing skill Other cast members were Hugh Grant and Simon Helberg For her performance Streep won the Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Actress in a Comedy and received additional Academy Award Golden Globe SAG and BAFTA nominations As of April Streep will reunite with Rob Marshall and Emily Blunt in Mary Poppins Returns in which she plays the title character's cousin Topsy The film also reunites Streep with Colin Firth and Julie Walters She has also committed to portray Kay Graham to Tom Hanks' Ben Bradlee in Steven Spielberg's drama The Post which will center on The Washington Post's publication of the Pentagon Papers Acting style and legacy edit Women are better at acting than men Why Because we have to be If successfully convincing somebody bigger than you of something he doesn't know is a survival skill this is how women have survived through the millennia Pretending is not just play Pretending is imagined possibility Pretending or acting is a very valuable life skill and we all do it All the time Streep on acting Vanity Fair commented that it's hard to imagine that there was a time before Meryl Streep was the greatest living actress Emma Brockes of The Guardian notes that despite Streep's being one of the most famous actresses in the world it is strangely hard to pin an image on Streep in a career where she has laboured to establish herself as an actor whose roots lie in ordinary life Despite her success Streep has always been modest about her own acting and achievements in cinema She has stated that she has no particular method when it comes to acting learning from the days of her early studies that she cannot articulate her practice She said in I have a smattering of things I've learned from different christa-ludwig christie-ford christi-lake christina-berg christina-blond christina-evol christina-skye teachers but nothing I can put into a valise and open it up and say 'Now which one would you like' Nothing I can count on and that makes it more dangerous But then the danger makes it more exciting She has stated that her ideal director is one who gives her complete artistic control and allowing a degree of improvisation and her to learn from her own mistakes Karina Longworth notes how external Streep's performances are chameleonic in her impersonation of characters subsuming herself into them rather than personifying them In her early roles such as Manhattan and Kramer vs Kramer she was compared to both Diane Keaton and Jill Clayburgh in that her characters were unsympathetic which Streep has attributed to the tendency to be drawn to playing women who are difficult to like and are devoid of a mutual emotional understanding with others Streep has stated that many consider her to be a technical actor but she professed that it comes down to her love of reading the initial script adding I come ready and I don't want to screw around and waste the first takes on adjusting lighting and everybody else getting comfortable Streep's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame Mike Nichols who directed Streep in Silkwood Heartburn and Postcards from the Edge praised Streep's ability to transform herself into her characters remarking that in every role she becomes a totally new human being As she becomes the person she is portraying the other performers begin to react to her as if she were that person He said that directing her is so much like falling in love that it has the characteristics of a time which you remember as magical but which is shrouded in mystery He also noted that Streep's acting ability had a profound impact on her co stars and that one could improve by purely by watching her Longworth believes that in nearly every film Streep has sly infused a feminist point of view in her portrayals However film critic Molly Haskell has stated None of her heroines are feminist strictly speaking Yet they uncannily embody various crosscurrents of experience in the last twenty years as women have redefined themselves against the background of the women's movement Streep is well known for her ability to imitate a wide range of accents from Danish in Out of Africa to English received pronunciation in The French Lieutenant's Woman Plenty and The Iron Lady Italian in The Bridges of Madison County a Minnesota accent in A Prairie Home Companion Irish American in Ironweed and a heavy Bronx accent in Doubt Streep has stated that she grew up listening to artists such as Barbra Streisand The Beatles and Bob Dylan and she learned a lot about how to use her voice her instrument by listening to Barbra Streisand's albums In the film Evil Angels released in the U S as A Cry in the Dark in which she portrays a New Zealand transplant to Australia Streep perfected a hybrid of Australian and New Zealand English Her performance received the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role as well as Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival and the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress For her role in the film Sophie's Choice Streep spoke both English and German with a Polish accent as well as Polish itself In The Iron Lady she reproduced the vocal style of Margaret Thatcher from the time before Thatcher became Britain's Prime Minister and after she had taken elocution lessons to change her pitch pronunciation and delivery Streep has commented that using accents as part of her acting is a technique she views as an obvious requirement in her portrayal of a character When questioned in Belfast as to how she reproduces different accents Streep replied in a perfect Belfast accent I listen In Streep was awarded the AFI Life Achievement Award by the board of directors of the American Film Institute Other work edit Streep with Alec Baldwin and Josh Wood at the th Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards After Streep appeared in Mamma Mia her rendition of the song Mamma Mia rose to popularity in the Portuguese music charts where it peaked at No in October At the th People's Choice Awards her version of Mamma Mia won an award for Favorite Song From A Soundtrack In Streep was nominated for a Grammy Award her fifth nomination for her work on the Mamma Mia soundtrack Throughout her career Streep has narrated numerous audio books including three by children's book author William Steig Brae Irene Spinky Sulks and The One and Only Shrek Streep is the spokesperson for the National Women's History Museum to which she has donated a significant amount of money including her fee for The Iron Lady which was million and hosted numerous events On October Streep donated million to The Public Theater in honor of both its late founder Joseph Papp and her friend the author Nora Ephron She also supports Gucci's Chime for Change campaign that aims to spread female empowerment Streep at Harvard University in In Streep established two scholarships for students at the University of Massachusetts Lowell the Meryl Streep Endowed Scholarship for English majors and the Joan Hertzberg Endowed Scholarship named for Streep's former classmate at Vassar College for math majors In April it was announced that Streep had funded a screenwriters lab for female screenwriters over forty years old called the Writers Lab to be run by New York Women in Film Television and the collective IRIS As of the announcement the Writers Lab is the only initiative in the world for female screenwriters over forty years old In Streep signed an open letter for which the ONE Campaign had been collecting signatures the letter was addressed to Angela Merkel and Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma urging them to focus on women as they served as the head of the G in Germany and the AU in South Africa respectively which was set to set the priorities in development funding before a main UN summit in September to establish new development goals for the generation Also in Streep sent each member of the U S Congress a letter supporting the Equal Rights Amendment Each of her letters was sent with a copy of the book Equal Means Equal Why the Time for alex-white aliana-love alice-springs the ERA is Now by Jessica Neuwirth president of the ERA Coalition Streep when asked in a interview by Time Out magazine if she was a feminist answered I am a humanist I am for nice easy balance In March Streep among others signed a letter asking for gender equality throughout the world in observance of International Women's Day this was also organized by the ONE Campaign Personal life edit Author Karina Longworth notes that despite her high level of stardom for decades Streep has managed to maintain a relatively normal personal life Streep lived with actor John Cazale for three years until his death from lung cancer in March Al Pacino remarked that I've hardly ever seen a person so devoted to someone who is falling away like John was To see her in that act of love for this man was overwhelming citation needed Streep said of his death I didn't get over it I don't want to get over it No matter what you do the pain is always there in some recess of your mind and it affects everything that happens
afterwards I think you can assimilate the pain and go on without making an obsession of it Streep married sculptor Don Gummer six months after Cazale's death They have four children musician Henry born actresses Mamie born and Grace born and model Louisa born In August the family moved into a million private estate in Connecticut with an extensive art studio to facilitate Streep's husband's work and lived there until they bought a million mansion in Brentwood Los Angeles in They eventually moved back to Connecticut Streep is the godmother of fellow actress Billie Lourd daughter of Carrie Fisher When asked if religion plays a part in her life in Streep replied I follow no doctrine I don't belong to a church or a temple or a synagogue or an ashram In an interview in December she also alluded to her lack of religious belief when she said So I've always been really deeply interested because I think I can understand the solace that's available in the whole construct of religion But I really don't believe in the power of prayer or things would have been avoided that have happened that are awful So it's a horrible position as an intelligent emotional yearning human being to sit outside of the available comfort there But I just can't go there When asked from where she draws consolation in the face of aging and death Streep responded Consolation I'm not sure I have it I have a belief I guess in the power of the aggregate human attempt the best of ourselves In love and hope and optimism you know the magic things that seem inexplicable Why we are the way we are I do have a sense of trying to make things better Where does that come from Politically Streep has described herself as part of the Left She gave a speech at the Democratic National Convention in support of presidential nominee Hillary Clinton On January Streep accepted the Cecil B DeMille Award for Lifetime Achievement during the Golden Globes Her speech was highly political criticizing then President elect Donald Trump She said that Trump had a very strong platform and was using it inappropriately She said that he mocked a disabled reporter Serge F Kovaleski who in her words Trump outranked in privilege power and the capacity to fight back and that When the powerful use their position to bully we all lose She also said Hollywood is crawling with outsiders and foreigners and if you kick us all out you'll have nothing to watch except for football and mixed martial arts which are not arts Trump responded on Twitter by calling Streep one of the most over rated actresses in Hollywood and a Hillary flunky who lost big The White House press secretary at the time Josh Earnest defended Streep's comments saying that she was exercising her First Amendment rights to freedom of speech Awards and nominations edit Main article List of awards and nominations received by Meryl Streep See also edit Meryl Streep on screen and stage List of awards and nominations received by Meryl Streep List of Academy Award records List of actors with two or more Academy Awards in acting categories P raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony vip svgBiography portal Video x generic svgFilm portal P culture svgTheatre portal Blank television set svgTelevision portal Notes edit a Jump up Streep's initial impression of Hoffman had been a negative one thinking him to have been an obnoxious pig when she had first met him on stage several years earlier and Hoffman had admitted that he initially hated her guts but respected her as an actress b Jump up Despite Streep's own negative self body image President Obama while presenting the Kennedy Center Honors remarked Anyone who saw The French Lieutenant's Woman had a crush on her c Jump up The film was released in Australia as Evil Angels References edit Jump up Hollinger pp Jump up Negra Diane Holmes Su In the Limelight and Under the Microscope p Jump up Harry Lou Furman Eric In the Can p Meryl Streep widely considered the best actress of her generation Jump up to a b Meryl Streep's First Acting Gig Becoming Pretty And Popular In High School NPR Retrieved August Jump up Ehbar Ned February Did you know Metro New York City p Jump up Kate Andersen Brower March Obama Honors Meryl Streep James Taylor Harper Lee at Ceremony Bloomberg Archived from the original on February Retrieved July Jump up Barack Obama jokes with Stevie Wonder and Meryl Streep at Presidential Medal of Freedom ceremony The Guardian November Retrieved July Jump up Moore wins film award The Age February Retrieved July Jump up Meryl Streep Will Be Honored With the Cecil B DeMille Award At The Golden Globes AwardsDaily com November Retrieved November Jump up Magill p Jump up to a b Meryl Streep Biography Film Reference com Retrieved January Jump up Probst p Jump up to a b Louis Gates Jr p Jump up Britten Nick February Baftas Meryl Streep's British ancestor 'helped start war with Native Americans' The Daily Telegraph London Jump up to a b Meryl Streep Faces of America Retrieved February Jump up to a b Meryl Streep PBS Retrieved January Jump up McKenzie Joi Marie February Henry Louis Gates Says He Broke Meryl Streep's Heart Niteside Retrieved February Jump up Meryl Streep's great grandparents from Dunfanaghy Donegal News January Retrieved April Jump up to a b c d Brockes Emma September The devil in Ms Streep The Guardian Retrieved July Jump up to a b c d Here's Where Meryl Streep Found the Confidence to Become an Actress Vanity Fair June Retrieved July Jump up Horowitz Joy March That Madcap Meryl Really The New York Times Retrieved January Jump up N J Teachers Honor Graduates The Philadelphia Inquirer November Retrieved July Streep is a graduate of Bernards High School in Bernardsville Jump up to a b c d e Longworth p Jump up Meryl Streep Movies marriage and turning sixty The Independent January Retrieved November Jump up to a b c d Longworth p Jump up Yale library's list of all roles played at Yale by Meryl Streep Retrieved March Jump up Gussow p Jump up Gussow Mel January Critic's Notebook Luring Actors Back to the Stage They Left Behind The New York Times Retrieved March Jump up to a b c d e Longworth p Jump up Pfaff Emerson p Jump up to a b Contemporary Biography Women Original profiles American Biography Service Inc p Jump up Henry V Joseph Papp Public Theater New York Shakespeare Festival Lortel Archives Lucille Lortel Foundation Retrieved May Jump up Measure for Measure Joseph Papp Public Theater New York Shakespeare Festival Lortel Archives Lucille Lortel Foundation Retrieved May Jump up The Taming of the Shrew Joseph Papp Public Theater New York Shakespeare Festival Lortel Archives Lucille Lortel Foundation Retrieved May Jump up Levy Rochelle L Meryl Streep tribute American Film Institute Retrieved January Jump up Lowell Katherine Show Business Clinton Gilkie p GGKEY XQ TU D L X Jump up to a b Fisher p Jump up Longworth p Jump up On the anniversary of his death revisit John Cazale's tragically short film career in I Knew It Was You The A V Club Retrieved September Jump up Longworth pp Jump up Gray Paul December Cinema A Mother Finds Herself Time p Retrieved February Jump up to a b Hollinger p Jump up Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up The st Academy Awards

Nominees and Winners Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences AMPAS Retrieved July Jump up Magazines Archive SimplyStreep com Retrieved June dead link citing Star Treks Horizon Magazine August Jump up Longworth p Jump up Meryl Streep Emmy Award Winner Emmy Award Retrieved April Jump up to a b Longworth p Jump up Magazines Archive SimplyStreep com Retrieved June dead link citing Streep Year Look Magazine March Jump up Hollinger p Jump up to a b c Longworth p Jump up Hollinger p Jump up Hollinger p Jump up Magazines Archive SimplyStreep com Retrieved June dead link citing The Freshest Face in Hollywood Playgirl Magazine November Jump up to a b Longworth p Jump up The nd Academy Awards Oscars Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Retrieved May Jump up to a b c d Meryl Streep Nominations Wins Golden Globes Hollywood Foreign Press Association Retrieved May Jump up Lenburg p Jump up Current Biography Yearbook H W Wilson Co p Jump up Sterling p Jump up Devine p Jump up Chivers Tom March Oscars the worst injustices in Academy Award history The Daily Telegraph Retrieved July Jump up to a b c Longworth p Jump up Palmer Bray p Jump up Barack Obama reveals Meryl Streep 'crush' at Kennedy Centre Honours The Telegraph December Retrieved July Jump up to a b Denby David September Meryl Streep is Madonna and siren in The French Lieutenant's Woman New York p Retrieved June Jump up Film Actress in British Academy of Film and Television Arts Retrieved January Jump up Canby Vincent September 'Still of the Night' in Hitchcock Manner The New York Times Retrieved June Jump up Snider Eric D October What's the Big Deal Sophie's Choice Film com MTV Networks Retrieved May Jump up Picks and Pans Review Sophie's Choice People January Retrieved May Jump up Lloyd Robinson p Jump up Skow John September What Makes Meryl Magic Time Retrieved June Jump up Meryl Streep Academy Awards Acceptance Speech Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Retrieved January Jump up Premiere Magazine's Top Greatest Performances Empire March Archived from the original on April Retrieved July Jump up Ebert p Jump up Longworth pp Jump up Longworth p Jump up to a b Ebert p Jump up Longworth p Jump up Ebert Roger November 'Plenty' review Chicago Sun Times Retrieved June Jump up Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up to a b Waldo p Jump up to a b Speed Wilson p Jump up Eberwein p p Jump up Newsweek p Jump up to a b c Eberwein p Jump up Canby Vincent November A Cry in the Dark The New York Times Retrieved July Jump up to a b Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up Corliss Richard December Warty Worm She Devil review Time Retrieved June Jump up to a b Hollinger p Jump up SAG History SAG Timeline Archived from the original on January Retrieved July Jump up Longworth pp Jump up Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up to a b Longworth p Jump up Corliss Richard August Beverly Hills Corpse Death Becomes Her review Time Retrieved June Jump up The House of the Spirits Rotten Tomatoes Flixster Retrieved April alissa-ashley allysin-chaynes alysin-embers alyssa-love alyssa-reece Jump up The House of the Spirits Rottentomatoes com Retrieved July Jump up Travers Peter September The River Wild Rolling Stone Retrieved May Jump up McGilligan p Jump up Longworth pp Jump up Longworth p Jump up to a b McGilligan p Jump up to a b c d Longworth p Jump up Longworth p Jump up Mitchell p Jump up Review Marvin's Room Chicago Sun Times January Retrieved March Jump up Allon et al p Jump up Maslin Janet November Dancing at Lughnasa The New York Times Retrieved July Jump up LaSalle Mick September Home Is a Beautiful 'Thing' Streep shines in drama about ailing mother San Francisco Chronicle Retrieved May Jump up Turan Kenneth September One True Thing Los Angeles Times Jump up to a b Hoffman Barbara October MAKING 'MUSIC' WES CRAVEN MOVES FROM VIOLENCE TO VIOLINS New York Post Jump up Caparrós p Jump up Ebert Roger Music of the Heart Movie Review Chicago Sun Times Retrieved May Jump up A I Artificial Intelligence Box Office Mojo Amazon com Retrieved February Jump up Previous Concerts Nobelpeaceprize org Archived from the original on July Retrieved July Jump up Meryl Streep and Liam Neeson Host The Nobel Peace Prize th Anniversary Concert PR Newswire Retrieved July Jump up Brantley Ben August Theater Review Streep Meets Chekhov Up in Central Park The New York Times Retrieved February Jump up Adaptation Rotten Tomatoes Flixster Retrieved April Jump up A O Scott December Adaptation The New York Times Retrieved July Jump up The Hours Details The New York Times Archived from the original on October Retrieved May Jump up Meryl Streep Biography TV Guide Retrieved January Jump up The Manchurian Candidate Box Office Mojo Amazon com Retrieved February Jump up LaSalle Mick July Terrorist attacks corporate control election controversy Sound familiar 'The Manchurian Candidate' has it all San Francisco Chronicle Archived from the original on May Retrieved May Jump up Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events Rotten Tomatoes Flixster Retrieved April Jump up Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events Box Office Mojo Amazon com Retrieved February Jump up Monet's Palate A Gastronomic View From the Gardens of Giverny with Meryl Streep Is a Film About Claude Monet PRWeb February Retrieved November Jump up Prime Box Office Mojo Amazon com Retrieved February Jump up Ebert Roger Prime Chicago Sun Times Retrieved July Jump up Brantley Ben August Mother Courage and Her Children The New York Times Retrieved January Jump up Ebert Bordwell p Jump up A Prairie Home Companion Box Office Mojo Amazon com Retrieved February Jump up Ebert Roger June The Devil Wears Prada Chicago Sun Times Retrieved July Jump up Kidder Oppenheim p Florence Foster Jenkins is a British biographical comedy drama film directed by Stephen Frears and written by Nicholas Martin The film stars Meryl Streep as Florence Foster Jenkins a New York heiress who became an opera singer known for her painful lack of singing skill Hugh Grant plays her husband and manager English Shakespearean actor St Clair Bayfield Other cast members include Simon Helberg Rebecca Ferguson and Nina Arianda Filming began in May and the premiere was held in London on April The film was released on May in the United Kingdom July in France August in the United States and December in Italy The film received a warm response from critics who praised the acting and warm tone of the film The film was nominated for two Oscars at the th Academy Awards Best Actress for Streep her th nomination and Best Costume Design and also received four Golden Globe nominations including Best Picture Contents hide Plot Cast Production Development Casting Filming Release Home media Reception Box office Critical response Accolades See also References External links Plot edit Florence Foster Jenkins Meryl Streep is a New York City heiress and socialite who founded the Verdi Club to celebrate a passionate love for opera and music As it is and the U S is in the midst of World War II Florence is of the opinion that music matters more than ever St Clair Bayfield Hugh Grant a British Shakespearean actor is her husband and manager Despite being married Florence and Bayfield live in separate residences She has an apartment in the city while he resides in a house with his secret mistress Kathleen Weatherley Rebecca Ferguson Florence suffers from a long term case of syphilis which she contracted from her first husband The illness has caused her to have various health problems for which she takes medication including mercury and arsenic that have toxic side effects Due to the fear of passing the disease on to Bayfield she remains abstinent from all sexual intercourse in her marriage and Bayfield fulfills his sexual urges with Kathleen Florence decides to resume her singing lessons which she has neglected She hires pianist Cosmé McMoon Simon Helberg and introduces him to her vocal coach Carlo Edwards David Haig the assistant conductor at the Metropolitan Opera McMoon is shocked to discover that Florence is a terrible singer yet Bayfield and Edwards pretend she is wonderful with the former giving McMoon a dire
warning not to criticize her Bayfield makes arrangements for a small recital hand picking people allowed to buy tickets On the night of the performance loyal members of the Verdi Club sit respectfully but others can barely contain their laughter Feeling encouraged by her recital’s good reviews she makes a recording of her singing as a Christmas gift for the Verdi Club Florence gives McMoon a copy of the record which leads to her recalling that Bayfield was not always a very successful actor and how she hid negative reviews to protect his feelings She also informs McMoon of her history as a piano player and teacher having once played for the President as a child McMoon realizes at this moment that Florence is not as musically inept as he had thought strengthening their friendship Florence and McMoon write and perform original songs together one of which gets airtime on the radio much to the shock and horror of Bayfield and Kathleen despite many listeners finding much enjoyment from her music believing it to be comedic With this burst in popularity Florence informs Bayfield that she has booked Carnegie Hall for a one night performance and will give away a thousand tickets to soldiers Bayfield tries to talk her out of it but fails With Bayfield stressed over the impending performance which culminates into him getting into a fight with a group of men listening and laughing at Florence and McMoon's song at a bar Kathleen cannot put up with the lack of attention and leaves him McMoon confides to Bayfield that he fears that the recital will humiliate him to the point of ruining his career Bayfield replies that he gave up his acting career to support his wife and urges McMoon to possibly do the same for the sake of his friend McMoon agrees elated that he will at least get to play at Carnegie Hall The concert is packed and attended by the likes of Cole Porter and Tallulah Bankhead When Florence begins singing the soldiers laugh and jeer Her supporters and loyal friends however scold them and then cheer for her to keep singing She happily continues her performance Meanwhile an editor for the New York Post refuses to continue listening telling a desperate Bayfield that he will write a damning review of the recital Bayfield with McMoon's help goes to great lengths so that she only receives good reviews by buying every copy of the New York Post in the vicinity and throwing them away After being given sarcastically patronizing comments about her performance alluding to the New York Post's review by a pair of young men Florence is driven to find a copy of the review in a trash can and is upset to the point of collapse As she is dying in bed Bayfield by her side Florence remembers a fancy angel costume worn for the concert as an angel and imagines herself singing beautiful opera She imagines that she McMoon and Bayfield all take a triumphant bow to a standing ovation She points out proudly that even though people can say she could not sing no one can say she did not sing Peacefully she dies Cast edit Meryl Streep as Florence Foster Jenkins Hugh Grant as St linda-wong linnea-quigley lisa-bright lisa-de-leeuw lisa-k-loring Clair Bayfield Simon Helberg as Cosmé McMoon Rebecca Ferguson as Kathleen Weatherley Nina Arianda as Agnes Stark Stanley Townsend as Phineas Stark Allan Corduner as John Totten Christian McKay as Earl Wilson David Haig as Carlo Edwards John Sessions as Dr Hermann Bríd Brennan as Kitty John Kavanagh as Arturo Toscanini Pat Starr as Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney Maggie Steed as Mrs James O'Flaherty Thelma Barlow as Mrs Oscar Garmunder Liza Ross as Mrs E E Patterson Paola Dionisotti as Baroness Le Feyre Rhoda Lewis as Mrs Patsy Snow Aida Garifullina as Lily Pons Nat Luurtsema as Tallulah Bankhead Mark Arnold as Cole Porter Production edit Development edit Prior to reading the Nicholas Martin penned script Frears did not have much knowledge about Jenkins beyond the portrayal of her in the West End play Glorious by Peter Quilter but on the strength of the script Frears became interested and did research by watching various Youtube videos of her Upon watching the videos Frears noted that You’re laughing and she touches you It’s inherently ridiculous and courageous at the same time Likewise both he and Streep were determined that despite the subject matter that the audience side with Florence Frears himself did not initially envision Streep in the role however after her name was brought up Frears agreed noting that thought it would be something fresh for her Streep worked with a singing coach to help her prepare for the role of Jenkins Frears praised her performance stating You can only sing badly if you are good singer Casting edit On March Simon Helberg was set to play Cosmé McMoon a pianist and the accompanist to Jenkins Rebecca Ferguson was added to the cast on April On April Nina Arianda joined the film to play Agnes Stark a showgirl struggling to move up into high society with the help of her husband Filming edit Principal photography on the film began in May in London Pathé released a first look photo on May featuring Streep and Grant as Jenkins and Bayfield respectively Filming was done in Hoylake and Liverpool city centre On June Grant and Ferguson were spotted filming in a resort in New Brighton Merseyside Filming also took place in Liverpool and the city was transformed into s New York City with Liverpool's Drury Lane street being turned into Central Park West where Streep and Grant were spotted filming in June Production concluded on July Release edit In September Paramount Pictures acquired U S distribution rights to the film The film had its world premiere at the Belfast Film Festival on April The film was theatrically released in the United Kingdom on May and in the United States on August Home media edit Florence Foster Jenkins was released on Digital HD on November and on Blu ray and DVD on December Reception edit Box office edit As of October Florence Foster Jenkins had grossed million in North America and million in other territories for a worldwide total of million In the United States and Canada Florence Foster Jenkins was released on August against Pete's Dragon and Sausage Party and was projected to gross million from theaters in its opening weekend It went on to open to million finishing th at the box office Critical response edit On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of based on reviews with an average rating of The performances of Streep Grant and Helberg received particular praise as well as the screenplay and the warm tone of the film The site's critical consensus reads Florence Foster Jenkins makes poignant crowd pleasing dramedy out of its stranger than fiction tale and does its subject justice with a reliably terrific turn from star Meryl Streep On Metacritic the film has a score of out of based on critics indicating generally favorable reviews Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of A on an A to F scale Wai Chee Dimock writing in the Los Angeles Review of Books linked the film to Hamlet and The Magic Flute saying that the film is neither tragedy nor farce but a passable admixture of the two defining both negatively Accolades edit List of awards and nominations Award Date
of ceremony candi candida-royalle candie-evens candi-summers Category Recipient s Result Ref s AARP Annual Movies for Grownups Awards February Best Actress Meryl Streep Nominated Best Comedy Florence Foster Jenkins Nominated Best Grownup Love Story Meryl Streep and Hugh Grant Nominated Academy Awards February Best Actress Meryl Streep Nominated Best Costume Design Consolata Boyle Nominated British Academy Film Awards February Best Actress in a Leading Role Meryl Streep Nominated Best Actor in a Supporting Role Hugh Grant Nominated Best Costume Design Consolata Boyle Nominated Best Makeup and Hair J Roy Helland and Daniel Phillips Won Costume Designers Guild February Excellence in Period Film Consolata Boyle Nominated Critics' Choice Awards December Best Actor in a Comedy Hugh Grant Nominated Best Actress in a Comedy Meryl Streep Won Best Costume Design Consolata Boyle Nominated European Film Awards December Best Actor Hugh Grant Nominated Evening Standard British Film Awards December Best Actor Hugh Grant Won Technical Achievement Consolata Boyle Nominated Golden Globe Awards January Best Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Florence Foster Jenkins Nominated Best Actor Motion Picture Comedy or Musical Hugh Grant Nominated Best Actress Motion Picture Comedy or Musical Meryl Streep Nominated Best Supporting Actor Motion Picture Simon Helberg Nominated Golden Tomato Awards January Best British Movie Florence Foster Jenkins th Place Best Musical Music Movie Florence Foster Jenkins rd Place Hollywood Film Awards November Hollywood Supporting Actor Award Hugh Grant Won Jupiter Awards March Best International Actress Meryl Streep Pending London Film Critics' Circle January British Irish Actor of the Year Hugh Grant Nominated Santa Barbara International Film Festival February Virtuosos Award Simon Helberg Won Satellite Awards February Best Actress Meryl Streep Nominated Best Supporting Actor Hugh Grant Nominated Screen Actors Guild Awards January Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role Meryl Streep Nominated Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Hugh Grant Nominated St Louis Gateway Film Critics Association December Best Comedy Florence Foster Jenkins Nominated See also edit Marguerite a French film inspired by the life of Jenkins Glorious the Olivier Award nominated West End stage comedy about Jenkins by Peter Quilter Souvenir two character play with music about Jenkins and McMoon starring Judy Kaye written by Stephen Temperley Out of Africa a film in which Meryl Streep's character also suffers from syphilis contracted from her husband References edit Jump up FLORENCE FOSTER JENKINS PG British Board of Film Classification March Retrieved March Jump up to a b c Florence Foster Jenkins The Numbers Retrieved October Jump up Florence Foster Jenkins London premiere April simplystreep com Retrieved August Jump up London premiere of Florence Foster Jenkins starwatchbyline com Retrieved August Jump up Florence Foster Jenkins' True Story vs the Meryl Streep Movie HistoryvsHollywood com Retrieved Jump up to a b McNary Dave October Meryl Streep Hugh Grant Teaming on 'Florence' Opera Story variety com Retrieved April Jump up to a b Fleming Jr Mike March 'Big Bang's Simon Helberg Is Meryl Streep's Pianist In Stephen Frears Directed 'Florence Foster Jenkins' deadline com Retrieved April Jump up to a b Jaafar Ali April Rebecca Ferguson Joins Cast Of Stephen Frears' 'Florence Foster Jenkins' deadline com Retrieved April Jump up to a b Gerard Jeremy April Nina Arianda Cast In Stephen Frears' 'Florence Foster Jenkins' With Meryl Streep deadline com Retrieved July Jump up to a b Aftab Kathleen Stephen Frears interview 'I don't know why Hugh Grant makes the films that he makes not that I've seen them' Independent Retrieved March Jump up to a b c Thompson Anne How Meryl Streep Embraced Being Awful in 'Florence Foster Jenkins' Video Indiewire Retrieved March Jump up Smart Jack How Meryl Streep Gave 'Florence Foster Jenkins' Life Backstage Retrieved March Jump up Ritman Alex November AFM Meryl Streep Hugh Grant Drama Sells Wide hollywoodreporter com Retrieved ruby-richards sabina-k sabre sabrina-chimaera sabrina-dawn April Jump up Tartaglione Nancy May Meryl Streep Hugh Grant In 'Florence Foster Jenkins' First Look Photo deadline com Retrieved July Jump up POCKLINGTON REBECCA June Hugh Grant transforms as he joins Meryl Streep and Rebecca Ferguson to film Florence Foster Jenkins Daily Mirror Retrieved July Jump up Hugh Grant films steamy scenes with co star Rebecca Ferguson as they get into character on set of passionate new movie dailymail co uk June Retrieved July Jump up MILES TINA June Exclusive Hugh Grant and Meryl Streep film together in Liverpool liverpoolecho co uk Retrieved July Jump up On the Set for Daniel Radcliffe Starts Shooting 'Swiss Army Men' Meryl Streep Finishes 'Florence Foster Jenkins' SSN Insider July Retrieved August Jump up Fleming Jr Mike September BIG Deal Paramount Nabs 'Florence Foster Jenkins' With Streep Grant Toronto Deadline com Retrieved April Jump up Florence Foster Jenkins Belfast Film Festival Retrieved April Jump up Evans Greg March 'Florence Foster Jenkins' Trailer Meryl Streep Movie Hits Funnier Notes Than 'Marguerite' Deadline com Retrieved April Jump up West Amy April Florence Foster Jenkins Meryl Streep and Hugh Grant star in new vintage style character posters International Business Times Retrieved April Jump up D'Alessandro Anthony April Paramount Dates 'Florence Foster Jenkins' 'Ben Hur' Moves Brad Pitt WWII Spy Film Titled 'Allied' CinemaCon Deadline com Retrieved April Jump up Evry Max April Meryl Streep in New Florence Foster Jenkins Trailer and Poster Comingsoon net Retrieved April Jump up Florence Foster Jenkins DVD Release Dates Retrieved October Jump up Florence Foster Jenkins On DVD Releases Jump up 'Suicide Squad' Secures Record Monday Haul For August Eyes M M In nd Weekend B O Preview deadline com Jump up 'Sausage Party' Raises Its Heat To M In nd Burning 'Sui deadline com Jump up Florence Foster Jenkins Rotten Tomatoes Retrieved September Jump up Florence Foster Jenkins reviews Metacritic Retrieved August Jump up CinemaScore cinemascore com permanent dead link Jump up The Queen of the Night sings Hamlet Jump up Rahman Abid December Denzel Washington's 'Fences' Leads Nominations for AARP's Movies for Grownups Awards The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved December Jump up Nordyke Kimberly January Oscars 'La La Land' Ties Record With Nominations The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved January Jump up Oscar Nominations Complete List Variety January Retrieved January Jump up Ritman Alex January BAFTA Awards 'La La Land' Leads Nominations The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved January Jump up Tschorn Adam 'La La Land ' 'Hidden Figures ' 'Nocturnal Animals ' 'The Crown' among nominees for Costume Designers Guild Awards latimes com Retrieved January Jump up La La Land Leads with Nominations for the nd Annual Critics' Choice Awards Critics' Choice December Retrieved December Jump up European Film Awards Winners Variety December Retrieved December Jump up Moore William December Evening Standard British Film Awards Winners London Evening Standard Retrieved December Jump up Golden Globes The Complete List of Nominations The Hollywood Reporter December Retrieved December Jump up Golden Tomato Awards Best of Rotten Tomatoes January Jump up Nicole Kidman Hugh Grant Naomie Harris and Lily Collins to be Honored Hollywood Film Awards October Retrieved November Jump up The Jupiter Awards Jupiter Awards Retrieved December Jump up 'Moonlight' and 'Love and Friendship' Lead London Film Critics' Circle Nominations London Film Critics December Retrieved December Jump up Santa Barbara International Film Festival Virtuosos Award Santa Barbara International Film Festival Retrieved November Jump up Kilday Gregg November Satellite Awards Nominees Revealed The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved November Jump up SAG Awards The Complete List of Nominations The Hollywood Reporter December Retrieved December Jump up StLFCA Annual Award Nominations St Louis Gateway Film Critics Association December Retrieved December External links edit Official website Official US website Florence Foster Jenkins at the Internet Movie Database The Florence Foster Jenkins West End play Glorious by Peter Quilter webpage Florence Foster Jenkins review by Paul Heath webpage Florence Foster Jenkins at Rotten Tomatoes Florence Foster Jenkins at Metacritic hide v t e Films directed by Stephen Frears Gumshoe A Day Out Sunset Across the Bay Three Men in a Boat Me I'm Afraid of Virginia Woolf Afternoon Off One Fine Day Bloody Kids Walter Walter and June Saigon Year of the Cat December Flower The Hit My Beautiful Laundrette Consuela or The New Mrs Saunders Prick Up Your Ears Mr Jolly Lives Next Door Sammy and Rosie Get Laid Dangerous Liaisons The Grifters Hero The Snapper Mary Reilly The Van The Hi Lo Country High Fidelity Liam Fail Safe Dirty Pretty Things The Deal Mrs Henderson Presents The Queen Chéri Tamara Drewe Lay the Favorite Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight Philomena The Program Florence Foster Jenkins Victoria and Abdul Categories films English language films French films British films s biographical films s comedy drama films th Century Fox films French biographical films French comedy andrea-lange andrea-true andy angel angela-baron angela-summers drama films British biographical films British comedy drama films Biographical films about singers Comedy films based on actual events Drama films based on actual events Film scores by Alexandre Desplat Films about opera Films directed by Stephen Frears Films set in New York City Rebecca Louisa Ferguson Sundström born October known professionally as Rebecca Ferguson is a Swedish actress She is best known for her lead role as Elizabeth Woodville in The White Queen which earned her a Golden Globe nomination and her starring role as Ilsa Faust in Mission Impossible Rogue Nation Contents hide Early life Career Personal life Filmography Film Television Awards and nominations References External links Early life edit Ferguson was born in Stockholm and grew up in the Vasastan district in central Stockholm Her mother Rosemary Ferguson is English and moved from Britain to Sweden at the age of Her father is Swedish Rebecca attended an English speaking school in Sweden and was raised bilingual speaking Swedish and English From the age of she worked as a model and appeared in magazines and on television commercials for cosmetic apparel and jewelry advertisements Ferguson has danced from a very early age she did ballet tap dancing jazz street funk and Tango She taught Argentine tango at a dance company in Lund Sweden for a few years while she continued her work on several short art film projects Ferguson attended the Adolf Fredrik's Music School in Stockholm and graduated in Career edit Rebecca Ferguson alongside Steven Gätjen at the Mission Impossible Rogue Nation global premiere in Vienna Austria She came to prominence as upper class girl Anna Gripenhielm in the soap opera Nya tider She went on to later play Chrissy in the Swedish American soap Ocean Ave Swedish director Richard Hobert spotted her at the Simrishamn town market in which led to her starring in his film A One Way to Antibes She has also appeared in the horror film Strandvaskaren and the film Vi alongside Gustaf Skarsgård In August it was announced

Ferguson had been cast to play Elizabeth Woodville in the ten part BBC historical drama The White Queen based on Philippa Gregory's The Cousins' War novels about the women of the Wars of the Roses Ferguson's work in The White Queen has been met with praise earning her a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress Miniseries or Television Film In Ferguson played Ilsa Faust the female lead in Mission Impossible Rogue Nation for which she was highly praised She will reprise her role in the sixth Mission Impossible film In she played the dual roles of Katya and Lauren opposite Sam Reid and Charles Dance in the cold war espionage thriller by Shamim Sarif Despite the Falling Snow For her acting she won the Best Actress award at the Prague Independent Film Festival Also in she appeared in Stephen Frears' Florence Foster Jenkins opposite Meryl Streep and Tate Taylor's thriller book adaptation The Girl on the Train She will co star in Tomas Alfredson's The Snowman opposite Michael Fassbender and Charlotte Gainsbourg and will play the lead in Daniel Espinosa's sci fi Life Personal life edit In Ferguson gave birth to a son Isac Hallberg with former boyfriend Ludwig Hallberg After her soap opera success and the birth of her son she moved with her boyfriend to Simrishamn on the Swedish south east coast The couple separated in April Filmography edit Film edit Title Year Role Notes Strandvaskaren Amanda Plus Short film Irresistible Woman Short film Flyga inte dala Short film Lennart Short film Arkiv Short film A One Way Trip to Antibes Maria Vi Linda Cold Night Hercules Ergenia Mission Impossible Rogue Nation Ilsa Faust Despite the Falling Snow Katya Lauren Florence Foster Jenkins Kathleen The Girl on the Train Anna Watson Life Miranda North The Snowman Katrine Bratt In post production The Greatest Showman Jenny Lind In post production Mission Impossible Ilsa Faust Filming Television edit Title Year Role Notes Nya tider Anna Gripenhielm episodes Ocean Ave Chrissy Eriksson Episode # Wallander Louise Fredman Episode Sidetracked The Vatican Olivia Borghese Television film The Inspector and The Sea Jasmine Larsson Episode Der Wolf im Schafspelz The White Queen Elizabeth Woodville Main role episodes The Red Tent Dinah Lifetime mini series Awards and nominations edit Year Association Category Work Result Golden Globe Awards Golden Globe Award for Best Actress Miniseries or Television Film The White Queen Nominated Hamptons International Film Festival Breakthrough Performer N A Won Critics' Choice Movie Awards Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Actress in an Action Movie Mission Impossible Rogue Nation Nominated Empire Awards Empire Award for Best Female Newcomer Mission Impossible Rogue Nation Nominated Prague Independent Film Festival Best Actress Despite the Falling Snow Won References edit Jump up Sigander Miranda December Rebecca Ferguson laddar för gala Göteborgs Posten in Swedish Retrieved December Jump up En tv donna att dö för in Swedish Slitz Archived from the original on August Jump up to a b Rebecca 'I'm a commoner
who becomes the White Queen' What’s on TV Jump up Farley Christopher John 'The White Queen' Finale Is Just the Start for Star Rebecca Ferguson Jump up Interview Extra Rebecca Ferguson The White Queen TV Choice Magazine June Retrieved March Jump up Meet Mission Impossible's Rebecca Ferguson Look July Retrieved March Jump up Interview Rebecca Ferguson for Mission Impossible Rogue Nation Irish Examiner July Retrieved March Jump up Det är kul att spela någon som är elak hela filmen igenom DN SE Retrieved Jump up Citroën DS Rising Star nominerade Stockholm Film Festival Retrieved Jump up Rebecca Ferguson och Tara fixar hårsvallen Rebecca Ferguson hälsade på P Populär Sverigesradio se Retrieved Jump up Rebecca Ferguson Actors in Scandinavia Retrieved Jump up Skarsgård jobbar helt naken gratis Nöjesbladet Aftonbladet Aftonbladet se Retrieved Jump up Starz Orders Historical Drama Based on Philippa Gregory's 'Cousins of War' Book Trilogy Hollywood Reporter Retrieved Jump up Media Centre The White Queen a new
ten part drama for BBC One BBC Retrieved Jump up reasons to watch The White Queen Retrieved July Jump up Meet Rebecca Ferguson the Scene Stealing Star of Mission Impossible TIME July Retrieved August Jump up After 'Mission Impossible ' Rebecca Ferguson's Impossible Calm Amid a Whirlwind Mission The New York Times July Retrieved August Jump up Fleming Mike 'Mission Impossible ' Female Lead Goes To Rebecca Ferguson Deadline com Retrieved Jump up Meet Rebecca Ferguson the beautiful scene stealer in Mission Impossible Rogue Nation Entertainment Weekly July Retrieved August Jump up Friedman Roger December Mission Accomplished Rebecca Ferguson First Tom Cruise Leading Lady Doing a Second M I Showbiz Jump up Rebecca Ferguson spies hard in the Despite The Falling Snow trailer Empire February Retrieved March Jump up A trio of awards for Despite The Falling Snow Enlightenment Productions August Retrieved September Jump up Rebecca Ferguson Cast In 'Florence Foster Jenkins' Opposite Meryl Streep Deadline April Retrieved March Jump up Rebecca Ferguson To Star In 'The Girl On The Train' Deadline August Retrieved March Jump up Michael Fassbender's 'The Snowman' Circles Rebecca Ferguson Variety October Retrieved March Jump up Rebecca Ferguson to Star in Skydance's Sci fi Pic 'Life' Variety January Retrieved March Jump up Rebecca Ferguson om separationsryktet Den frågan skippar vi Hant se in Swedish September Retrieved March Jump up Golden Globes The complete list of nominees and winners Los Angeles Times December Retrieved December Jump up Variety and Hamptons International Film Festival Host Actors to Watch Brunch Variety October Retrieved December Jump up Hipes Patrick December Critics' Choice Awards Nominations 'Mad Max' Leads Film ABC HBO FX Networks 'Fargo' Top TV Deadline Retrieved December Jump up Jameson Empire Awards Star Wars and Mad Max lead the nominations External links edit Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rebecca Ferguson Rebecca Ferguson at the Internet Movie Database Rebecca Ferguson at the Swedish Film Database Edit this at Wikidata Rebecca Ferguson at AllMovie Rebecca Ferguson at Rotten Tomatoes Rebecca Ferguson at TVGuide com Rebecca Ferguson at Box Office Mojo Rebecca Ferguson at The Numbers com Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF LCCN no GND X Michael Fassbender born April is a German born Irish actor His feature film debut was in the fantasy war epic as a Spartan warrior his earlier roles included various stage productions as well as starring roles on television such as in the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers and the Sky One fantasy drama Hex He first came to prominence for his role as IRA activist Bobby Sands in Hunger for which he won a British Independent Film Award Subsequent roles include in the independent film Fish Tank as a Royal Marines lieutenant in Inglourious Basterds as Edward Rochester in the film adaptation of Jane Eyre as Carl Jung in A Dangerous Method as a sentient android in Prometheus and in the musical comedy drama Frank as an eccentric musician loosely inspired by Frank monika-sandmayr monika-unco monique-bruno monique-cardin monique-charell monique-demoan monique-gabrielle monique-la-belle Sidebottom In Fassbender debuted as the Marvel Comics antihero Magneto in X Men First Class and went on to share the role with Ian McKellen in X Men Days of Future Past and reprise it again in X Men Apocalypse Also in Fassbender's performance as a sex addict in Shame earned him the Volpi Cup for Best Actor at the Venice Film Festival and was nominated for Golden Globe and BAFTA Awards In his role as slave owner Edwin Epps in the slavery epic Years a Slave was similarly praised earning him his first Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actor In Fassbender appeared in another Ridley Scott film The Counselor In he portrayed Steve Jobs in the Danny Boyle directed biopic of the same name and played Macbeth in Justin Kurzel's adaptation of William Shakespeare's play For the former he has received Academy Award BAFTA Golden Globe and SAG nominations In he produced the western Slow West in which he also starred Contents hide Early life Career Early work Mainstream success Future projects Personal life Filmography Awards and nominations See also References External links Early life edit Fassbender was born on April in Heidelberg Baden Württemberg His mother Adele is Irish from Larne County Antrim while his father Josef Fassbender is German According to Fassbender family lore his mother is the great grand niece of Michael Collins an Irish leader during the War of Independence When Fassbender was two years old his parents moved to the Irish town of Killarney County Kerry where they ran the West End House a restaurant where his father worked as a chef Fassbender was raised Catholic and served as an altar boy at the church his family attended He has an older sister Catherine who is a neuropsychologist Fassbender and his sister spent summer holidays in Germany and he speaks German fluently though he later stated before filming Inglourious Basterds that he had needed to brush up a bit on his spoken German because it was a bit rusty He attended Fossa National School and St Brendan's College both in Killarney He decided that he wanted to be an actor at age when he was cast in a play by Donal Courtney At he moved to London to study at the Drama Centre London a constituent school of Central Saint Martins In he dropped out of the Drama Centre and toured with the Oxford Stage Company to perform the play Three Sisters Before he found work as an actor he worked as a bartender and postman Career edit Early work edit Fassbender at the Cannes Film Festival Fassbender's first screen role was that of Burton Pat Christenson in Tom Hanks and Steven Spielberg's award winning television miniseries Band of Brothers He played the character of Azazeal in both series of Hex on Sky One and starred as the main character in the music video for the song Blind Pilots by the British band The Cooper Temple Clause In the video he plays the part of a man out with friends on a stag night who slowly transforms into a goat due to wearing a cowbell necklace Fassbender played Jonathan Harker in a ten part radio serialisation of Dracula produced by BBC Northern Ireland and broadcast in the Book at Bedtime series between November and December He was also seen in early in a Guinness television commercial The Quarrel playing a man who swims across the ocean from Ireland to apologise personally to his brother in New York this commercial won a gold medal at the FAB Awards During the Edinburgh Festival Fringe Fassbender played Michael Collins in Allegiance a play by Mary Kenny based on the meeting between Collins and Winston Churchill In addition he produced directed and starred in a stage version of Quentin Tarantino's Reservoir Dogs along with his production company He appeared in Angel UK title The Real Life of Angel Deverell about the rise and fall of an eccentric young British writer played by Romola Garai in the early th century Fassbender plays her love interest an average painter named Esmé The drama the first English language effort by French director Fran ois Ozon and based on the novel by Elizabeth Taylor premiered on February at the Berlin International Film Festival and on March in Paris He then made a brief appearance in Dean Cavanagh and Irvine Welsh's Wedding Belles as Barney speaking with a Scottish accent Mainstream success edit In Fassbender played Stelios a young Spartan warrior in a fantasy action film directed by Zack Snyder The film was a commercial success In preparation for his role as Provisional Irish Republican Army prisoner Bobby Sands in Steve McQueen's film Hunger Fassbender underwent a crash diet that restricted him to calories a day He received the British Independent Film Award for his performance One year after his success at the Cannes Film Festival with Hunger he appeared in two films The first was Quentin Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds in which he played the British officer Lieutenant Archie Hicox The other film was Fish Tank directed by Andrea Arnold Both films were critically acclaimed and Fassbender's work in them also well received weasel words Fassbender at the premiere of Years a Slave Toronto International Film Festival In Fassbender appeared as Burke in Jonah Hex a Western film In an interview at San Diego Comic Con International a comic book convention Fassbender commented of the role I kind of developed this character and really pushed it I’ll see how far I pushed it I had this idea about the character he’s kind of psychotic he gets his kicks in perverted ways I didn’t want to make it very obvious or like something you’ve seen before Hex received predominately negative reviews Responding to criticism of Jonah Hex in Fassbender commented Pretty awful was it I haven't seen it myself He portrayed Quintus Dias in Neil Marshall's bloody Roman war thriller drama film Centurion and was cast as 'Richard Wirth' in the Joel Schumacher film Blood Creek alongside Dominic Purcell The story centres on a West Virginia man who comes to terms with his moral qualms and helps his brother wipe out a family that had been protecting a Nazi occultist and who had kept his brother captive for him to feed off for years Fassbender played Edward Rochester in
the film Jane Eyre featuring Mia Wasikowska in the title role with Cary Fukunaga directing Fassbender portrayed Magneto in the superhero blockbuster X Men First Class the prequel to X Men Set in it focuses on the friendship between Charles Xavier played by James McAvoy and Magneto and the origin of their groups the X Men and the Brotherhood of Mutants The film was released on June to general acclaim and financial success and promoted Fassbender to being more of a popular movie star In Fassbender starred in A Dangerous Method by director David Cronenberg playing Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist Carl Jung The film premiered at the Venice Film Festival He also starred in Shame as a man in his thirties struggling with his sexual addiction Shame reunited him with director Steve McQueen and premiered at the Venice Film Festival where Fassbender won a Volpi Cup Best Actor Award for his portrayal of Brandon Fassbender was a serious contender for an Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role but he was not nominated and according to various sources his full frontal nudity and depiction of sexual encounters inspired voters to fantasize and not actually vote Fassbender achieved critical acclaim for his portrayal in Shame and received nominations for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor Motion Picture Drama and a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Starring in the film raised Fassbender's profile leading to roles in larger films In he appeared as an MI agent in Haywire an action thriller directed by Steven Soderbergh and in Ridley Scott's science fiction film Prometheus Reviews praised both the film's visual aesthetic design and the acting most notably Fassbender's performance as the android David Fassbender played the title role in Ridley Scott's The Counselor a film based on the Cormac McCarthy script In he starred in Years a Slave his third collaboration with Steve McQueen Fassbender's portrayal of Edwin Epps earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor Fassbender reprised the role of Magneto in X Men Days of Future Past released May the sequel to X Men First Class Fassbender stars in the title role in Frank released late summer a comedy loosely inspired by Frank Sidebottom a comic persona created by English comedian Chris Sievey Fassbender co starred in Slow West a western starring Kodi Smit McPhee and Ben Mendelsohn in He played Silas an enigmatic traveller Fassbender Marion Cotillard and Justin Kurzel at the Cannes premiere of Macbeth in Fassbender played late Apple founder and CEO Steve Jobs in the Danny Boyle directed film Steve Jobs which began filming in January in San Francisco U S and premiered in September of that year The film is an adaptation of Walter Isaacson's book Steve Jobs The screenplay was written by Aaron Sorkin Fassbender became attached after Christian Bale dropped out of the project His performance saw him nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor Fassbender took on the Shakespearean role of Macbeth in a film directed by Justin Kurzel where he teamed up with Academy Award winner Marion carmen-de-la-torre carmen-moore carmen-rose carol-connors carol-cross carol-cummings carole-dubois carole-gire carole-pierac Cotillard as Lady Macbeth and David Thewlis as King Duncan Filming for the production began in January and the film premiered at the Cannes Film Festival In Fassbender once again played Magneto in the film X Men Apocalypse He next starred in The Light Between Oceans based on the novel written by M L Stedman and directed by Derek Cianfrance the movie began filming in New Zealand in late September and was released on September Also in Fassbender starred in the thriller Trespass Against Us with fellow Irishman Brendan Gleeson His final film of the year was the adaptation of video game Assassin's Creed which he co produced through his DMC Film banner It was released on December Macbeth helmer Justin Kurzel directed and co star Marion Cotillard had a leading role working with Fassbender again In May Fassbender's announced sequel to Prometheus titled Alien Covenant will reprise his role as the android David Principal photography for the film was completed in Future projects edit In Fassbender was announced in The Snowman an adaptation of a Jo Nesbø book directed by Tomas Alfredson and co starring Rebecca Ferguson and Charlotte Gainsbourg Filming began in January and the film will hit theaters in Together with screenwriter Ronan Bennett Fassbender has formed a production company Finn McCool Films Fassbender and Bennett are currently developing a film about the Irish mythological hero Cú Chulainn Personal life edit Fassbender has lived in Hackney London since in the same flat that he has owned since he was in his late s He is fluent in German and has expressed interest in performing in a German language film or play He is a lapsed Catholic though he still goes to church to light candles From to Fassbender was in a relationship with Japanese Australian singer Maiko Spencer From to he dated American model Leasi Andrews Since December he has been dating Swedish actress Alicia Vikander whom he met on the set of The Light Between Oceans Filmography edit Main article Michael Fassbender filmography Awards and nominations edit Main article List of awards and nominations received by Michael Fassbender See also edit biography portal List of actors with Academy Award nominations References edit Jump up Michael Fassbender Biography Actor Biography com FYI A E Networks Archived from the original on September Retrieved January Jump up to a b c Garratt Sheryl October Michael Fassbender on Playing Bobby Sands in Hunger The Daily Telegraph Archived from the original on February Jump up The Year Of Michael Fassbender Irish America Jump up to a b Blood Sweat Tears The Irish Times April Retrieved June subscription required Jump up Mottram James August Interview Michael Fassbender Lean and Mean The Scotsman Archived from the original on October Retrieved June Jump up Mia Wasikowska and Michael Fassbender for W Tom Lorenzo March Retrieved June Jump up to a b McClintock Pamela January Fassbender on Fire The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved December Jump up Faculty Catherine Fassbender Ph D University of California Davis MIND Institute Jump up Day Elizabeth May Michael Fassbender the man to take on Brando's mantle The Guardian Archived from the original on December Retrieved December Jump up Cheney Alexandra June Michael Fassbender Supervillain with a Sensitive Side The Wall Street Journal Jump up Irish Actor Michael Fassbender Brushes Up on His German for 'Inglourious Basterds' Irishcentral com August Retrieved June Jump up Fossa National School Fossa Killarney Co Kerry Ireland Fossanationalschool com Retrieved Jump up to a b Michael Fassbender Opens Up About ' Years A Slave ' Religion and Assassin's Creed Daily Beast October Retrieved November Jump up Jim Maloney September Michael Fassbender The Biography The Biography John Blake Publishing Limited p ISBN Jump up am EDT Michael Fassbender Opens Up About Dating Women And The Trouble Of Maintaining Relationships Huffingtonpost com Retrieved Jump up to a b c d Michael Fassbender Biography Yahoo Movies Retrieved October Jump up Michael Fassbender Guinness youtube Retrieved October Jump up Michael Fassbender michaelfassbender org Retrieved August Jump up Fabawards winners PDF Jump up O'Doherty Cahir February Michael Fassbender Is Officially a Hollywood Leading Man IrishCentral Retrieved February Jump up Box Office Mojo March Retrieved March Jump up Winners at British Independent Film Awards Bifa org uk June Retrieved June Jump up to a b Knockout has begun filming in Dublin Life of a Married Man Alesrybarik com February Retrieved June Jump up In Screen Crave August Retrieved March Jump up Jonah Hex Movie Reviews Pictures Rotten Tomatoes Flixster Retrieved October Jump up Michael Fassbender future superstar Salon March Retrieved March Jump up Get Ready To Jump in New 'Centurion' Clip Bloody disgusting com Retrieved June Jump up Bartyzel Monika February Casting Bites From Weisz's 'Dream' to Wasikowska's 'Eyre' The Moviefone Blog Cinematical com Retrieved June Jump up Maytum Matt September Venice Michael Fassbender Wins Best Actor for Shame TotalFilm com Retrieved September Jump up Nikkhah Roya September Michael Fassbender holly-joy holly-page holly-ryder honey-winter hottie-hollie Wins Best actor at Venice for Sex Addict role The Daily Telegraph Retrieved September Jump up Oscars Did Michael Fassbender's Big Part Cost Him a Nom Los Angeles Times January Retrieved February Jump up Michael Fassbender's Penis Caused Oscar Snub The Huffington Post January Retrieved February Jump up Fleming Mike TOLDJA Michael Fassbender Commits To Ridley Scott Directed 'The Counselor' Deadline com Retrieved June Jump up Sneider Jeff September Fassbender Gleeson set for 'Frank' Variety Retrieved September Jump up Konow David August X Men Day of Future Past gets detailed tgdaily com Retrieved October Jump up Sundance Magnolia Acquires Michael Fassbender's 'Frank' Variety January Retrieved August Jump up White James October Michael Fassbender Heads For Slow West Empire Online Retrieved November Jump up Kerry superstar Michael Fassbender lands Steve Jobs role in major Hollywood biopic evoke ie January Jump up Universal Buys Steve Jobs Movie Boyle and Fassbender Remain Film Slashfilm com Retrieved Jump up The th Academy Awards Oscars Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences February Retrieved July Jump up Something SMOLDERING this way comes Michael Fassbender makes Macbeth sexy in new poster evoke ie May Jump up Keslassy Elsa Marion Cotillard Set to Topline 'MacBeth' Opposite Michael Fassbender Retrieved August Jump up Chitwood Adam January 'X Men Apocalypse' Michael Fassbender on Working with Oscar Isaac Becoming a Horseman Collider Retrieved June Jump up Bullbeck Pip August DreamWorks confirms NZ shoot for Michael Fassbender starrer 'The Light Between Oceans' Hollywood Reporter Retrieved August Jump up D'Alessandro Anthony February Oscar Bait Fassbender Vikander Film 'The Light Between Oceans' Dated For Next Awards Season Deadline com Retrieved February Jump up De Burca Demelza April Michael Fassbender set to team up with Brendan Gleeson to play Traveller in upcoming flick Irish Mirror Retrieved April Jump up Michael Fassbender Variety Jump up Fleming Mike Marion Cotillard To Star In 'Assassin's Creed' With Michael Fassbender Deadline Retrieved Jump up Fleming Jr Mike April Michael Fassbender poised to re team with 'MacBeth' Helmer on 'Assassin's Creed' Deadline com Retrieved April Jump up Risley Matt Michael Fassbender says Prometheus 'is going to happen' Retrieved November Jump up On the Set for Ridley Scott Michael Fassbender Start 'Alien Covenant' Benedict Cumberbatch Wraps 'Doctor Strange' SSN Insider April Retrieved June Jump up Universal Sets Release Date for Michael Fassbender's 'The Snowman' The Hollywood Reporter December Retrieved January Jump up Dawtrey Adam February Michael Fassbender preps Cuchulain project Variety Retrieved February Jump up Clarke Cath May Michael Fassbender interview 'You have to take risks' timeout com Jump up Michael Fassbender the man to take on Brando's mantle The Guardian May Retrieved April Jump up Michael Fassbender LA is too soft Belfast Telegraph May Retrieved April Jump up Elizabeth Day Michael Fassbender the man to take on Brando's mantle Elizabeth Day From the Observer The Observer Theguardian com Retrieved Jump up A Michael Fassbender Fan Blog June Fassinatingfassbender com June Retrieved June Jump up Brockes Emma January What's a nice boy like Michael Fassbender doing in a film like Shame The Guardian Retrieved March Jump up A hunger to shock The men behind the film depiction of Bobby Sands' hunger strike explain themselves Daily Mail October Retrieved January Jump up Stock Photo Michael Fassbender and Maiko Spencer on the red carpet at the Irish Film and Television Awards Dublin Republic of Ireland alamy com Retrieved January Jump up Michael Fassbender The Biography by Jim Maloney books google com Retrieved January Jump up Michael Fassbender and Leasi Andrews whosdatedwho com Retrieved January Jump up Michael Fassbender gushes about girlfriend Alicia Vikander 'She gives great performances' Irish Independent Jump up Haskell Rob Alicia Vikander The Danish Girl Star Jumps Out of a Plane and Talks Overnight Fame Vogue December External links edit Wikimedia Commons has media

related to Michael Fassbender alexis-devell alexis-firestone alexis-greco Michael Fassbender at the Internet Movie Database show Awards for Michael Fassbender Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF LCCN no ISNI GND SUDOC X BNF cb x data MusicBrainz a dd bb d a e bc f f BNE XX Categories births th century Irish people st century Irish people Film awards for lead actor th century Irish male actors st century Irish male actors Alumni of the Drama Centre London Best Supporting Actor AACTA International Award winners Best Supporting Actor Empire Award winners Empire Hero Award winners German emigrants to Ireland Men First Class stylized onscreen as X First Class is a American superhero film based on the X Men characters appearing in Marvel Comics It is the fifth installment in the X Men film series A prequel to the franchise the film was directed by Matthew Vaughn and produced by Bryan Singer The story is set primarily in during the Cuban Missile Crisis and focuses on the relationship between Professor Charles Xavier James McAvoy and Erik Lensherr Magneto Michael Fassbender and the origin of their groups the X Men and the Brotherhood of Mutants respectively as they deal with the Hellfire Club led by Sebastian Shaw Kevin Bacon who is bent on world domination The film co stars Rose Byrne January Jones and Oliver Platt The film also introduces new actors to the series including Nicholas Hoult and Jennifer Lawrence who like McAvoy and Fassbender reimagine popular characters from the franchise Beast and Mystique that have already been established in previous films namely the original trilogy Producer Lauren Shuler Donner first thought of a prequel based on the young X Men during the production of X and later producer Simon Kinberg suggested to th Century Fox an adaptation of the comic series X Men First Class though the film does not follow the comic closely Singer who had directed both X Men and X became involved with the project in but he could only produce and co write First Class due to other projects Matthew Vaughn who was previously attached to both X Men The Last Stand
and Thor became the director and also wrote the final script with his writing partner Jane Goldman First Class overtook a planned Magneto prequel that entered development hell and the Writer's Guild of America arbitration gave a story credit to Magneto writer Sheldon Turner First Class entered production in August with principal photography concluding in December and additional filming finishing in April just a few weeks before the film's premiere in June The tight schedule proved a challenge to the six companies responsible for the extensive visual effects which included computer generated sets and digital doubles for the actors Locations included Oxford the Mojave desert and Georgia with soundstage work done in both Pinewood Studios and the th Century Fox stages in Los Angeles The depiction of the s drew inspiration from the James Bond films of the period First Class was a box office success becoming the seventh highest grossing in the film series and received positive reviews from critics sarah-cabrera sarah-hevyn sarah-mills and audiences who praised the fresh revival of the franchise as well as the acting writing directing action visual effects and Henry Jackman's score A sequel titled X Men Days of Future Past also serving as a resolution to the original trilogy's storyline was released in May with Singer returning as director and Vaughn as co writer Another sequel X Men Apocalypse was released on May Contents hide Plot Cast Production Development Filming Effects Music Release and reception Critical response Box office Home media Accolades Sequels Notes References External links Plot edit In in a Polish death camp Nazi scientist Dr Klaus Schmidt witnesses a young Erik Lehnsherr bend a metal gate with his mind when the child is separated from his mother In his office Schmidt orders Lehnsherr to move a coin on his desk and kills the boy's mother when Lehnsherr cannot In grief and anger Lehnsherr's magnetic power manifests killing two guards and destroying the room Meanwhile at a mansion in Westchester County New York child telepath Charles Xavier meets young shapeshifter Raven whose natural form is blue skinned and scaly Overjoyed to meet someone else different he invites her to live with his family as his foster sister In Lehnsherr is tracking down Schmidt while Xavier graduates from the University of Oxford In Las Vegas CIA officer Moira MacTaggert follows U S Army Colonel Hendry into the Hellfire Club where she sees Schmidt now known as Sebastian Shaw with mutant telepath Emma Frost cyclone producing Riptide and teleporter Azazel Threatened by Shaw and teleported by Azazel to the Joint War Room Hendry advocates deployment of nuclear missiles in Turkey Shaw an energy absorbing mutant whose powers have de aged him later kills Hendry MacTaggert seeking Xavier's advice on mutation takes him and Raven to the CIA where they convince Director McCone that mutants exist and Shaw is a threat Another CIA officer sponsors the mutants and invites them to the secret Division X facility MacTaggert and Xavier find Shaw as Lehnsherr is attacking him and rescue Lehnsherr from drowning while Shaw escapes Xavier brings Lehnsherr to Division X where they meet young scientist Hank McCoy a mutant with prehensile feet who believes Raven's DNA may provide a cure for their appearance Xavier uses McCoy's mutant locating device Cerebro to seek recruits against Shaw Xavier and Lehnsherr recruit stripper Angel Salvadore cabbie Armando Muñoz Army prisoner Alex Summers and runaway Sean Cassidy They all create nicknames and Raven dubs herself Mystique When Frost meets with a Soviet general in the USSR and uses her telepathic powers to pretend to have sex with him Xavier and Lehnsherr capture Frost and discover that Shaw intends to start World War III and trigger mutant ascendency Azazel Riptide and Shaw attack Division X killing everyone but the mutants whom Shaw invites to join him Salvadore accepts when Summers and Muñoz retaliate Shaw kills Muñoz In Moscow Shaw compels the general to have the USSR install missiles in Cuba Wearing a helmet that blocks telepathy Shaw follows the Soviet fleet in a submarine to ensure the missiles break a US blockade Raven thinking McCoy likes her in her natural form tells him not to use the cure When she later attempts to seduce Lehnsherr by taking the forms of various women Lehnsherr tells her she is beautiful in her blue mutant form McCoy uses the cure on himself but it backfires giving him blue fur and leonine aspects With McCoy piloting the mutants and MacTaggert take a jet to the blockade line where Xavier uses his telepathy to influence a Soviet sailor to destroy the ship carrying the missiles and Lehnsherr uses his magnetic power to lift Shaw's submarine from the water and deposit it on land During the ensuing battle Lehnsherr seizes Shaw's helmet allowing Xavier to immobilize Shaw Lehnsherr tells Shaw he shares Shaw's exclusivist view of mutants but to avenge his mother kills Shaw over Xavier's objections by forcing the Nazi coin from his childhood through Shaw's brain Fearing the mutants both fleets fire missiles at them which Lehnsherr turns back in mid flight MacTaggert tries to stop Lehnsherr by shooting him but he deflects the bullets one of which hits Xavier in the spine Lehnsherr rushes to help Xavier and distracted allows the missiles to fall harmlessly into the ocean Parting with Xavier over their differing views on the relationship between mutants and humans Lehnsherr leaves with Salvadore Azazel Riptide and Mystique Later a wheelchair bound Xavier and his mutants are at the mansion where he intends to open a school MacTaggert promises never to reveal his location and they kiss later at a CIA debriefing she says she has no memory of recent events Elsewhere Lehnsherr now calling himself Magneto frees Frost from confinement Cast edit Michael Fassbender and James McAvoy sit in front of the X logo for Xavier's school Actors Michael Fassbender and James McAvoy at a press junket James McAvoy as Charles Xavier Professor X The telepathic mutant leader and founder of the X Men He is a close friend of Erik Lehnsherr until their differing views of mutantkind's place in humanity create a schism between them McAvoy was Vaughn's top choice for Xavier and after being cast auditioned with every actor considered for Magneto to test the duo's chemistry McAvoy said he did not read comic books as a child but added that he was a fan of the X Men cartoons from the age of While he describes the older Charles Xavier as a monk a selfless egoless almost sexless force for the betterment of humanity and mortality he says that the younger Xavier is a very different person It's quite fun because the complete opposite of that is an ego fueled sexed up self serving dude And not going too far with it but he's definitely got an ego and he's definitely got a sex drive as well McAvoy admitted to feeling similarities between Xavier Magneto and Martin Luther King Jr Malcolm X stating that the film was sort of like meeting them at a point where they are still finding out who they are and you are still seeing some of the events that shaped them McAvoy avoided doing any callbacks to Patrick Stewart's performance as Xavier as Vaughn told him and Michael Fassbender to only take the allusion to Xavier and Magneto's old friendship in the other movies as inspiration Vaughn stated that since he considered that Professor X was a bit of a pious sanctimonious boring character and he's got too much fucking power the script would make young Xavier more interesting by making him more of a rogue who would become more responsible as his mission of finding more mutants went on Laurence Belcher as year old Charles Xavier Michael Fassbender as Erik Lehnsherr Magneto A mutant capable of manipulating and generating electromagnetic fields He becomes Xavier's friend and ally until their philosophical differences create a schism between them Fassbender had auditioned for an earlier Matthew Vaughn project and the director had remembered him and sent Fassbender the X Men script Though Fassbender knew little of the superhero team he became interested in the part after reading the script
and familiarizing himself with Magneto in the comic books Fassbender who saw Lehnsherr as a Machiavellian character who is neither good nor evil watched Sir Ian McKellen's performances to get the flavor of Magneto but ultimately chose to paint a new canvas with the character just going my own way and working with whatever is in the comic books and the script Vaughn said Lehnsherr is straight up cool he's Han Solo while Professor X is Obi Wan Kenobi note Bill Milner as year old Erik Lehnsherr Jennifer Lawrence as Raven Darkhölme Mystique A shape shifting mutant who is Charles Xavier's childhood friend and adoptive sister After the dramatic Winter's Bone Lawrence sought First Class to do something a little lighter Despite having not seen any of the X Men films the actress watched them and became a fan which led her to accept the role as well as did the prospect of working with Vaughn McAvoy and Fassbender Vaughn said Lawrence was picked because she could pull off the challenging dichotomy that Raven faces as she transforms into Mystique that long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia vulnerability that shields a powerful inner strength Lawrence had some reservations about her performance due to Mystique's previous portrayal by Rebecca Romijn as she considered Romijn to be the most gorgeous person in the world and felt their portrayals were very contrasting feeling hers was sweet and naive while Romijn was sultry and mean The actress went on a diet and had to work out for two hours daily to keep in shape and for Mystique's blue form Lawrence had to undergo an eight hour make up process similar to that of Romijn on the other films The first day with make up even caused blisters to appear on Lawrence's upper body Morgan Lily as year old Raven Darkhölme with the actress wearing a slip on bodysuit and facial appliances which only took one hour and a half to apply as subjecting a child actor to the extensive make up was impractical Rebecca Romijn as adult Raven Darkhölme a brief uncredited cameo which Vaughn added as an in joke the script has Raven becom ing Brigitte Bardot or Marilyn Monroe like an older sex icon of those times Rose Byrne as Moira MacTaggert A CIA agent who befriends Xavier and Lehnsherr Byrne said she was unfamiliar with both the comics and the film series except for what a juggernaut of a film it was The actress was cast late into production which had already begun by the time she was picked for the role MacTaggert was described by Byrne as a woman in a man’s world she’s very feisty and ambitious you know she’s got a toughness about her which I liked Nicholas Hoult as Dr Hank McCoy Beast A genius scientist who has mutant abilities similar to those of the great apes He attempts to cure himself of what he believes to be physically debilitating aspects of his mutation only to be transformed into a frightening looking blue furred apeman with leonine attributes Despite his new appearance he is kind and caring at heart Broadway actor Benjamin Walker was previously cast as Beast but eventually turned down the role to star in the Broadway musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson Hoult was chosen for being gentle with a capability of being fierce and admitted to being both an X Men fan and enthusiastic on both returning to the action genre after 's Clash of the Titans and working with the film's cast The actor had to use makeup that took four hours to apply when Hank becomes the Beast which include a mask contact lenses a furry muscle suit and fake teeth As Vaughn wanted Beast to look more feral than the version Kelsey Grammer played in X Men The Last Stand the redesign went through various tests which tried to make Beast not resemble any particular animal but still look like Hoult as well as with a furry body which makeup artist Alec Gillis of Amalgamated Dynamics likened to something akin to a wolf's pelt on his face his arms everywhere The suits employed actual dyed fur from fox pelts Lucas Till as Alex Summers Havok A mutant who has the ability to absorb energy and discharge it as blasts The producers told Till his audition served for both Havok and Beast and the actor replied that despite his lifelong dream of playing a superhero I know you'll kill me but if I get Beast I'm not in the movie I'm not going through that makeup everyday sic Caleb Landry Jones as Sean Cassidy Banshee A mutant capable of emitting incredibly strong ultrasonic screams sonic blasts sonic bursts and sonic waves used in various ways including as a means of flight Jones auditioned without knowing what X Men character he was up for saying he auditioned because it was a superhero that fit his biotype I've got red hair and freckles I'm not gonna be Batman Robin or Spider Man The actor also stated that the script defined the character more than the comics as Banshee went through various reinventions in print Given Banshee gets involved with MacTaggert in the comics Jones also tried to look at her just a little bit differently you know when I can As Jones suffers from acrophobia using the rig that was to depict Banshee's flight required much preparation time with the stunt team Kevin Bacon as Dr Klaus Schmidt Sebastian Shaw A former mutant Nazi scientist and the leader of the Hellfire Club a secret society bent on taking over the world He has the power of absorbing and redirecting kinetic and radiated energy Producer Lauren Shuler Donner said Bacon was considered for Shaw for being an actor who could convey a villain with different shades that's not always clear that he's the bad guy Vaughn added that Bacon had that bravado that Shaw needed while stating that the actor was his top choice along with Colin Firth Bacon accepted the role as he was a fan of Vaughn's Kick Ass and liked both the character of Shaw and the script which he described as a fresh look at the franchise but also the comic book movies in general The actor considered that Shaw was a sociopath to whom the morality of the world did not apply with producer Simon Kinberg adding that Bacon portrayed him as somebody who in his mind is the hero of the movie Bacon also said that aside from the kind of evil side I portrayed him as kind of a Hugh Hefner type Vaughn discarded Shaw's look from the comics
as he felt he would look like an Austin Powers villain Jason Flemyng as Azazel A mutant who has the ability to teleport and is also a member of the Hellfire Club Flemyng who had previously been considered for Beast in The Last Stand said he did not want more make up heavy roles after playing Calibos in Clash of the Titans but made an exception for Azazel as he liked working with Vaughn Due to the Cold War setting Flemyng tried to imply that Azazel is Russian to partly explain his pleasure in killing CIA agents The actor spent eight weeks with fight training particularly with swords and had to undergo a four hour make up process which like Mystique was designed by Spectral Motion but did not include Azazel's tail which was computer generated Shuler Donner considered that the problems with the shade of red on Azazel's skin some looked like the Devil some like a man wearing red paint was overcome by adding scars that made him more human eyes brighter than Flemyng's own and a cynthia-black cynthia-brooks cynthia-hammers cynthia-lavigne black mane of hair that seemed to tie everything in Oliver Platt as Man In Black Suit A CIA agent and head of Division X a government agency working with the X Men Vaughn had considered his friend Dexter Fletcher for the part but the studio felt the cast had too many British actors and Fletcher himself declined to direct Wild Bill January Jones as Emma Frost An extremely strong mutant telepath who can also change her entire body into hard diamond form which grants her superhuman strength stamina psionic immunity and durability at the cost of using her telepathic abilities She is a member of the Hellfire Club Prior to Jones' casting Alice Eve was the subject of what Variety called widespread Internet reports that Eve was set to play Emma Frost although no deal was in place Jones accepted the role to get something different from her job in the TV series Mad Men While discovering that like the show First Class was set in the s the actress considered that Frost 's so so far from Betty and from Mad Men and it takes place in that time but it doesn’t feel like a period movie The actress described the revealing costumes of the character as insane saying She's got quite the bod which is very intimidating The actress stated that she did only a limited exercise routine to keep in shape as I'm a petite person so I didn't want to go into a strict workout and eating regime Edi Gathegi as Armando Muñoz Darwin A mutant with the ability of reactive evolution Gathegi became interested in a role in the X Men films after seeing X and had previously auditioned for Agent Zero in X Men Origins Wolverine He read for Banshee while auditioning for First Class and only learned he was playing Darwin a few days prior to the shoot Gathegi worked out and entered an eating regime to get in shape and also researched the comics about his character All of Darwin's transformations getting gills turning his skin into concrete were done through computer graphics with a computer generated version of Gathegi that could seamlessly blend in and out of the human form Zoë Kravitz as Angel

Salvadore A mutant with dragonfly wings which are tattooed on her body and possesses acidic saliva The make up team took four hours to apply Angel's wing tattoo on Kravitz and the visual effects team had to erase the tattoo in case the scene required Angel with the computer generated wings To depict flight Kravitz stood on elevated platforms and was dangled on wires at times from a helicopter to allow for varied camera angles Álex González as Janos Quested Riptide A mutant member of the Hellfire Club with the ability to create powerful whirlwinds from his hands and body First Class marks the first English language film for González who auditioned while taking English classes in London He enjoyed playing a villain as most of his film roles in Spain were for good guys and compared Riptide's respectable and polite personality which can suddenly be dropped to perform fierce attacks to a hurricane in a translation of a Portuguese language interview he is quoted as saying When I see a hurricane from far it is calm The only thing I can see is a kind of tube But from inside up close it is really dangerous Matt Craven as CIA Director McCone A director of the CIA Rade Šerbedžija as Russian General A high ranking Soviet military official during the early s Glenn Morshower as Colonel Robert Hendry A US Army officer coerced by the Hellfire Club Other cast members include Annabelle Wallis as Amy a young woman who has heterochromia Don Creech as CIA Agent Stryker father of Major William Stryker a character who appears in X X Men Origins Wolverine X Men Days of Future Past and X Men Apocalypse Michael Ironside Ray Wise James Remar Brendan Fehr and Aleksander Krupa also portrayed small roles in this film Hugh Jackman reprises his role as Logan Wolverine in an uncredited cameo in a bar dismissing an approach by Xavier and Lehnsherr to join them Jackman said he accepted the offer to appear because it sounded perfect to me particularly for Wolverine being the only character with a swear word X Men creator Stan anita-cannibal anita-dark anna-belle anna-malle anna-nikova Lee who appeared in the first and third movie and regularly cameos in other Marvel based movies explained that he was unable to participate in First Class because they shot it too far away Production edit Development edit During the production of X producer Lauren Shuler Donner had discussed the idea of a film focusing on the young X Men with the crew which was met with approval the concept was revived during the production of X Men The Last Stand One of The Last Stand's writers Zak Penn was hired to write and direct this spin off but this idea later fell through Penn explained in that the original idea was to have me do a young X Men spin off a spin off of the young X Men characters But someone came up with a pretty interesting idea it was this guy who worked with me named Mike Chamoy he worked a lot with me on X He came up with how to do a young X Men movie which is not what you'd expect Around the same time in December th Century Fox hired screenwriter Sheldon Turner to draft a spin off X Men film and he chose to write Magneto pitching it as The Pianist meets X Men According to Turner the script he penned was set from to following Magneto trying to survive in Auschwitz He meets Xavier a young soldier during the liberation of the camp He hunts down the Nazi war criminals who tortured him and this lust for vengeance turns him and Xavier into enemies In April David S Goyer was hired to direct The film would take place mostly in flashbacks with actors in their twenties with Ian McKellen's older Magneto as a framing device and some usage of the computer generated facelift applied to him in the prologue of X Men The Last Stand McKellen reiterated his hope to open and close the film The Magneto film was planned to shoot in Australia for a release but it was delayed by the Writers Guild of America strike As producer Simon Kinberg read the comic series X Men First Class he suggested studio th Century Fox to adapt it Kinberg however did not want to follow the comic too much as he felt it was not fresh enough in terms of storytelling considering them too similar to Twilight and John Hughes movies and also because the producers wanted an adaptation that would introduce new characters Both Kinberg and Shuler Donner said that they wanted characters with visuals and powers that had not been seen and that worked well as an ensemble even if they did not work together in the comics Shuler Donner later said that the original idea was to green light First Class depending on the success of X Men Origins Magneto That project was seeking approval to film in Washington D C and by December Goyer said filming would begin if X Men Origins Wolverine was successful The story was moved forward to and involves Xavier and Magneto battling a villain In Josh Schwartz was hired to write the screenplay while declining the possibility of directing X Men First Class Fox later approached Bryan Singer director of X Men and X in October Schwartz later said that Singer dismissed his work as he wanted to make a very different kind of movie with the director instead writing his own treatment which was then developed into a new script by Jamie Moss In Ian McKellen confirmed that he would not be reprising his role as Magneto in the Origins movie citing his age and Shuler Donner stated that the movie might never be made stating it was at the back of the queue in the studio's priorities Both Donner and Bryan Singer have stated that Magneto would not be produced as the plot of X Men First Class superseded the story of the planned film Singer denied using Sheldon Turner's script for Magneto as inspiration to write his draft of First Class but the Writer's Guild of America arbitration still credited Turner for the film's story while Moss and Schwartz's collaborations ended up uncredited Singer set the film in a period where Xavier and Magneto were in their twenties and seeing that it was during the s added the Cuban Missile Crisis as a backdrop considering it would be interesting to discuss this contemporary concept in a historical context Shuler Donner suggested the
Hellfire Club as the villains In addition to Moss Ashley Edward Miller and Zack Stentz were hired to rewrite the script Miller compared it tonally to Singer's work on the first two X Men films The pair centered the film on Xavier and Magneto's relationship and wrote the other characters and storylines in terms of how they fit in the tension between Erik and Charles Singer dropped out of the director's position in March due to his commitment to a Jack the Giant Killer adaptation He formalized his duties from director to producer The producers listed various possible directors but at first did not consider Matthew Vaughn because he started working on The Last Stand before backing out After seeing Vaughn's satirical superhero film Kick Ass Kinberg decided to contact Vaughn to see if he would be interested in First Class When Fox offered Vaughn the chance to reboot X Men and put your stamp all over it he first thought the studio was joking but accepted after discovering that it was to be set in the s The director stated that First Class would become the opportunity to combine many of his dream projects I got my cake and ate it managed to do an X Men movie and a Bond thing and a Frankenheimer political thriller at the same time Vaughn signed on as Singer's replacement in May and Fox subsequently announced a June release date Vaughn also rewrote the script with his screenwriting partner Jane Goldman adding new characters and changing existing character arcs and dynamics for instance the idea of a love triangle between Xavier Magneto and Moira MacTaggert was cut The character of Sunspot was also cut as the director felt that we didn't have enough time or money to make the character work Vaughn and Goldman considered including mentions to the Civil Rights Movement but ultimately the director felt that I had enough political subplot in this movie Vaughn stated that his biggest concern was to both make Erik and Charles' friendship believable given the short timespan of the film and on how the character of Magneto sheena-horne sheer-delight shelby-star shelby-stevens shelly-berlin was built Shaw was the villain but now you're seeing all those elements of Shaw going into Magneto An action scene that was to have been set in a dream sequence with revolving rooms was scrapped after the release of Inception Describing his thought process towards the material Vaughn said he was motivated by unfinished business with Marvel having been previously involved with the production of both X Men The Last Stand and Thor Vaughn declared that he was more enthusiastic about First Class than The Last Stand due to not being constrained by the previous installments and having the opportunity to start fresh while nodding towards the successful elements from those films Vaughn compared First Class to both Batman Begins which restarted a franchise with an unseen approach and the Star Trek film which paid homage to the original source material while taking it in a new direction with a fresh young cast Regarding continuity Vaughn said his intention was to make as good a film that could stand on its own two feet regardless of all the other films and also that could reboot and start a whole new X Men franchise Goldman added the film was kind of an alternate history for the X Men saying that while rebooting the writers did not want to go fully against the canon of the X Men trilogy comparing to the various approaches the comic had in over fifty years of publication The film also rescues a central concept in the comics the fact that radiation is one of the causes of genetic mutation in the X Men fictional universe and incorporates it in the storyline resurrecting the concept which went unused in the last years as writers in the comics more recently have attributed the phenomenon of mutation mostly to evolution and natural selection Filming edit A mansion surrounded by trees and hedges The Englefield House served as the X Mansion Principal photography began on August in Oxford England which included St Aldate's street and some of the University of Oxford's buildings and lasted for two days Production then moved to Pinewood Studios in Iver and to

Georgia in October including Tybee Island Thunderbolt and Savannah after sites in Louisiana North Carolina and West Michigan were considered Jekyll Island was chosen over Tybee Island after a producer reviewed the locations on Google Earth and thought the water near Jekyll looked more blue Palm trees were planted into the island's sand so that it would look more like a tropical beach but the cold weather caused many of the palm trees to become brown or die only days into the shoot necessitating significant digital color correction from the visual effects team Additional location shooting took place in Russia A section of the plot is set in the Argentine coastal city of Villa Gesell but was filmed in another province of the country with no beach but with mountains instead Washington D C the Mojave Desert and Fox's soundstages in Los Angeles also served as locations The Englefield House in Berkshire served as the X Mansion and had its interior decoration adapted to resemble the way the mansion looked in the previous films Both the submarine and the X Jet were built on hydraulic sets so that they could be rotated for the vehicles' movements Principal photography ended in December but additional filming primarily in California at Los Angeles and Long Beach continued into April leaving only three to four weeks for post production before the film's scheduled premiere in June The tight schedule to meet the release date led Vaughn to declare that he had never worked under such time pressure The film cost approximately million to produce without tax breaks with the eventual cost around million A battleship fires its guns while surrounded by helicopters and a crane Filming of the naval battle scenes The s setting of X Men First Class technologically inspired by the James Bond films of that era also added to the international feel of the characters Kinberg said the series was a major influence for the way they did a cool job representing the period in a way it still felt muscular and action oriented and Vaughn added that Magneto was his attempt to recreate Sean Connery's Bond in both style and the badass charming ruthless and sweet personality The director said his goal was to feel like a ' s Bond film but with a little bit of reality it could be grounded in I wanted there to be just a hint of this world of the mutants coming through A mutant in this world having powers needed to be the equivalent of you or I sneezing as normal as possible at least until the humans start seeing it for the first time At the same time Vaughn tried to do the bloody hard balancing of modern and antique to recreate the s in way it was not so alien to the kids that it looked like a period piece The director also tried to depict the era still in a realistic way particularly that s misogynist vibe with women in skimpy suits and McTaggert's reliability as a CIA agent being questioned Vaughn said he shot the film in a way it resembled the productions of the s with very traditional framing and camera movement when it needs to move not just throwing it around and whizz bang and using the anamorphic format to create a widescreen experience which is emblematic of ' s movies such as the James Bond films The director had to hire five cinematographers with sole credit being given to John Mathieson who came halfway through the shoot and did forty five percent fifty five percent of the film and four assistant directors to successfully convey the look he wanted for the film Visual effects supervisor Matt Johnson added that for the lighting of the digital interior of Cerebro keeping with the ' s vibe we put in some old school elements such as lens flare and chromatic aberration and edge fringing The aesthetics of the decade were also invoked by designers Simon Clowes and Kyle Cooper of Prologue Films who were responsible for the end credits and tried to do something that could be done with traditional optical The credits animation depicts DNA strands through simple geometric shapes drawing inspiration from both Saul Bass and Maurice Binder's work in the Bond films The origin aimee-addison aisha-sun aja story made the X Men costumes resemble the ones in the original comics while still being functional with the yellow parts resembling Kevlar and the blue looking like ballistic nylon and resembling apparel in both the fabrics and the Space Age fashion The costumes tried to convey the character personalities for instance Xavier wore loose clothes and Emma Frost's costumes were white and shimmery Magneto's costume at the film's ending also closely resembled the original version from the comics and three versions of his helmet were made two to fit Fassbender's head and one for Bacon's Effects edit First Class employed visual effects shots which were done by six companies Rhythm Hues was responsible for Emma Frost Mystique and Angel as well as set extensions Cinesite handled Azazel the visuals for Cerebro and environment effects Luma Pictures did Banshee Havok and Darwin Moving Picture Company did Beast Riptide and the scene where Shaw's yacht is destroyed and he escapes in a submarine Digital Domain created Sebastian Shaw's powers and Weta Digital was responsible for the climactic battle in Cuba The overall coordination was provided by visual effects designer John Dykstra who said the biggest difficulty was the tight schedule It was slightly less than a year and I've never done anything like that before Spider Man was frequently two years British company dMax employed special D scanners to digitize data of the sets and actors which would be used by the effects companies This allowed for computer generated sets such as the mirrored nuclear reactor where Magneto battles Shaw for which the effects team used the mirror maze fight in Enter the Dragon as a reference and the domed walls of Cerebro Digital models of Washington and Moscow were also created based on photographs of the actual cities with the Russian one in particular having vehicles and military hardware based on videos of a Red Square and a digital army doing an actual Soviet style march With the exception of scenes featuring the actors on ships shot on a small bridge set and the X Jet done on a set replicating the front two thirds of the aircraft which was mounted atop a roller wheel so it could be spun the naval battle was entirely digital featuring a simulated ocean and high resolution D models of the X Jet Shaw's submarine and warships The designs were mostly based on real vehicles with the jet being a modified SR Blackbird the submarine a combination of various models from the s and s and replicas of the actual US and USSR fleets in the s though a few were not in service in A particular Soviet cruiser was a larger version of the Kresta I and II leading Weta to dub it the Kresta III Practical effects were still used whenever possible such as having on location most of the objects young Erik throws after his mother's death actors and stuntmen dangled from wires and real explosions and light effects as reference for Havok's beams While in the comics Shaw's absorption power was depicted by having him grow up to ten times his original size First Class instead does what company Digital Domain called a kinetic echo where a digital Kevin Bacon would be rippled deformed and at times multiplied in repeated iterations that appear in a short period to see Shaw displace and deform in a kinetic and organic way According to Dykstra the biggest problem with Frost's diamond body was depicting it without looking like she was made of Jell o or the polygon model of a human being The morphed Frost which the visual effects tried to make look more like a faceted crystal than glass was rotomated into Jones in the live action plates while still retaining the actress' eyes and lips As the character kept on going in and out of her diamond form a motion capture tracking suit could not be employed so instead the effects team used both gray and chrome balls and a jumpsuit covered in mirrors which also served as a lighting reference For Angel's digital wings the animators studied slow motion footage of dragonflies to create the wing pattern in a realistic
way and the designers added iridescence to make the wings prettier The visual of Banshee's screams was done through a digital ring like structure based on renderings of sound waves such as Schlieren photography The visual for Havok's blasts employed similar rings concentrated in beams or rings of light which were then match moved into Till's mimed throwing For Banshee's flight the visual effects team used digital doubles only for distant shots with closer ones employing Jones shot in a special flight rig Azazel's teleporting was made to resemble the inky smoky effects used with Nightcrawler who appeared in X and is Azazel's son in the comics However while Nightcrawler only left a smoke trail the visual effects team had Azazel accompanied by digital fire and smoke because he was more closely aligned with the devil The fire was also used as a mask to hide or reveal the body according to effects supervisor Matt Johnson Since the visible part of whirlwinds are the dust and dirt sucked up by them the ones Riptide produces were made to hyapatia-lee ida-fabry ildiko-smits illana-moor ines-ridere ingrid-choray resemble a tornado of gas made out of nothingness by visual effects supervisor Nicolas Aithadi The final product was mostly a practical effect made with dry ice which was augmented by computer generated imagery The visual effects team portrayed Mystique's abilities slightly differently due to this being a younger version with the scales being slightly longer and the transformation being slightly showier than when she became the more mature Rebecca For Beast computer graphics depicted his simian like feet the transformation sequence and a few facial replacements for when Beast opened his mouth wider than the mask on Hoult's face allowed Music edit Henry Jackman who had worked with Vaughn in Kick Ass composed the score Following the James Bond influences on First Class Jackman drew inspiration from John Barry's work in the said series which he described as extremely posh pop music Jackman started his work with a Superman style theme which is only featured in the final parts of the film as Vaughn thought it was too successful and triumphant for a disjointed and up and coming team Therefore Vaughn reworked a 'stretched' half time version of the theme into the remainder of the film The themes for Magneto and Shaw have similarities to reflect their perverted father son relationship with even a seamless transition during the scene where Shaw is killed to represent Lensherr's full transformation into Magneto In a roundtable interview with multiple news outlets Vaughn responded to a question about choosing Love Love by the British band Take That for the end credits theme explaining I bumped into the band's lead singer Gary Barlow in Los Angeles and we were just talking and I said 'Do you want to come and see a rough cut of it ’ And they came and they wrote the song and I listened to it and I said ‘I think it’ll be a hit’ and if we can do a video which gets girls more interested we might get them to come and watch it So it’s pure commerce to be blunt and I want women to see this film An instrumental of the song Run I'm a Natural Disaster by Gnarls Barkley is used in the 'mutant recruitment' scene X Men First Class Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Film score by Henry Jackman Released July Recorded Genre Film score Length Label Sony Masterworks Producer Henry Jackman Henry Jackman chronology Winnie the Pooh X Men First Class Puss in Boots X Men soundtrack chronology X Men Origins Wolverine X Men First Class The Wolverine All music composed by Henry Jackman Track listing No Title Length First Class Pain and Anger Would You Date Me Not That Sort of Bank Frankenstein's Monster What Am I Thinking Cerebro Mobilise for Russia Rise Up to Rule Cold War X Training Rage and Serenity To Beast or Not to Beast True Colors Let Battle Commence Sub Lift Coup d'état Mutant and Proud X Men Magneto Total length Release and reception edit The premiere for X Men First Class took place at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City on May The promotional campaign aimed for non traditional partners with Fox signing deals with Farmers Insurance Group BlackBerry Playbook and the U S Army Wrigley Australia issued an X Men themed edition of their chewing gum Critical response edit On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes the film holds an approval rating of based on reviews with an average rating of The site's critical consensus reads With a strong script stylish direction and powerful performances from its well rounded cast X Men First Class is a welcome return to form for the franchise On Metacritic the film received a score of out of based on critics indicating generally favorable reviews Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of B on an A to F scale Among the major trade publications Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter described the film as audacious confident and fueled by youthful energy and said that director Vaughn impressively maintains a strong focus dedicated to clarity and dramatic power and orchestrates the mayhem with a laudable coherence a task made easier by a charging churning score by Henry Jackman Justin Chang of Variety said
the film ariana-jollee arlana-blue ashley-anne ashley-brooks ashley-coda feels swift sleek and remarkably coherent and that the visual effects designed by John Dykstra are smoothly and imaginatively integrated Frank Lovece of Film Journal International lauded a wickedly smart script with a multilayered theme that never loses sight of its ultimate story and makes each emotional motivation interlock often shockingly playing for keeps with its characters This is not a kids' movie In consumer publications Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly praised the kind of youthful Brit knockabout pop energy director Matthew Vaughn absorbed from his previous collaborations as producer of director Guy Ritchie's bloke y larks and found McAvoy and Fassbender a casting triumph These two have yes real star magnetism both individually and together They're both cool and intense suave and unaffected playful and dead serious about their grand comic book work Peter Howell of the Toronto Star called it a blockbuster with brains and said Vaughn brings similar freshness to this comic creation as he did to Kick Ass and manages to do so while hewing to the saga's serious dramatic intent Box office edit X Men First Class went on general release on June In North America the film opened on approximately screens at locations debuting atop the weekend box office with earnings of million across the three days including million in its Friday midnight launch This opening was much lower than the opening weekends of X Men The Last Stand million X million and X Men Origins Wolverine million but slightly higher than the original film million Executives at th Century Fox stated they had achieved their goal by opening with about the same numbers as the first X Men film and that it was an excellent start to a new chapter of the franchise First Class also opened locations in overseas markets which brought in million during the weekend standing third in the overseas ranking behind Pirates of the Caribbean On Stranger Tides and The Hangover Part II The film opened atop the box office in twenty countries with the biggest grosses being in the United Kingdom million including previews France million Mexico million South Korea million and Australia million In its second weekend X Men First Class dropped percent the second smallest second weekend drop in the franchise behind X X Men United percent and came in with million in second place to Super Overseas it rose to number two behind Kung Fu Panda with million The film grossed in the United States and Canada and in foreign markets bringing its worldwide total to Home media edit X Men First Class was released on DVD and Blu ray September in the US and in the UK on October The home release topped the sales charts in the United States with approximately DVDs Blu ray accounted for percent of first week disc sales amounting to about discs In the UK it sold units Accolades edit Year of ceremony Award Category Recipients Result National Board of Review Awards Spotlight Award Michael Fassbender Also for Shame A Dangerous Method and Jane Eyre Won Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards Best Actor Michael Fassbender Also for Shame A Dangerous Method and Jane Eyre Won Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Female Breakout Star Jennifer Lawrence Nominated Zoë Kravitz Nominated Choice Movie Villain Kevin Bacon Nominated Choice Movie Chemistry Edi Gathegi Nicholas Hoult Caleb Landry Jones Nicholas Hoult Zöe Kravitz Jennifer Lawrence and Lucas Till Nominated Choice Movie Sci Fi Fantasy Film Nominated Scream Awards The Ultimate Scream Film Nominated Best Scream Play Film Nominated Best Fantasy Movie Film Won Best Director Matthew Vaughn Nominated Best Fantasy Actor James McAvoy Nominated Best Fantasy Actor Michael Fassbender Nominated Best Fantasy Actress Jennifer Lawrence Nominated Best Villain Kevin Bacon Nominated Best Superhero James McAvoy Nominated Breakout Performance Female Zoë Kravitz Nominated Breakout Performance Male Michael Fassbender Nominated Best Cameo Hugh Jackman Won Best Ensemble Film Nominated Best Comic Book Movie Film Nominated People's Choice Awards Favorite Action Movie Film Nominated mika-barthel mika-tan mikki-taylor mimi-morgan mindy-rae Favorite Ensemble Movie Cast Nominated Favorite Movie Superhero Jennifer Lawrence Nominated Favorite Movie Superhero James McAvoy Nominated Saturn Awards Best Science Fiction Film X Men First Class Nominated Best Make Up Dave Elsey Fran Needham and Conor O'Sullivan Won Sequels edit The movie's success led to the continuation of the film series with the spin off The Wolverine in A direct sequel X Men Days of Future Past was released on May X Men Apocalypse was released on May Notes edit Jump up The onscreen credits spell the character's name as Lensherr However previous X Men films the film's official website and the Marvel Comics web page for the character spell the name Lehnsherr References edit Jump up Bentley David May X Men First Class gets a UK rating and official running time Coventry Telegraph Coventry UK Archived from the original on June Retrieved May Jump up X Men First Class American Film Institute Retrieved May Jump up X Men First Class European Audiovisual Observatory Retrieved December Producing or Co

producing country US Jump up to a b McClintock Pamela June Box Office Preview 'X Men First Class' Expected to Bump 'Hangover II' From Top Spot The Hollywood Reporter Archived from the original on June Retrieved June Jump up to a b c X Men First Class Box Office Mojo Archived from the original on June Retrieved June Jump up to a b c d e f g h i j Leader Michael May Matthew Vaughn interview X Men First Class Thor Hollywood James Bond Take That and more UK Den of Geek Dennis Publishing Archived from the original on June Retrieved June Jump up Tilly Chris March X Men First Class James McAvoy Interview IGN Retrieved May Jump up Tilly Chris March X Men First Class James McAvoy Interview page IGN Retrieved June Jump up to a b c d McWeeny Drew May Interview Director Matthew Vaughn on making 'X Men First Class' feel fresh Hitfix com Archived from the original on May Retrieved May Jump up BrentJS September Laurence Belcher Joins X Men First Class as Young Charles Xavier ReelzChannel Retrieved September Jump up Tilly Chris X Men First Class Michael Fassbender Interview IGN Archived from the original on June Retrieved May Jump up to a b c d e f g h i j Extraordinary Abilities X Men First Class DVD th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up to a b McClintock Pamela August January Jones joins 'X Men' Variety Archived from the original on May Retrieved August Jump up Tilly Chris May X Men First Class Mystique Interview IGN Archived from the original on June Retrieved December Jump up to a b Ditzian Eric May 'X Men' Star Jennifer Lawrence Was Intimidated By 'Gorgeous' Rebecca Romijn MTV Archived from the original on June Retrieved December Jump up to a b c Dehn Georgia May X Men Jennifer Lawrence interview The Daily Telegraph UK Archived from the original on June Retrieved December Jump up Jennifer Lawrence on Being Painted Naked Daily for 'X Men First Class' The Hollywood Reporter January Archived from the original on July Retrieved December Jump up to a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Duncan Jody July
First Class Effects Cinefex Retrieved June subscription required Jump up Lussier Germain June Film Interview Part Matthew Vaughn Talks Major 'X Men First Class' Spoiler Film Archived from the original on June Retrieved December Jump up Exclusive Interview with Rose Byrne InStyle UK May Archived from the original on June Retrieved November Jump up Yamato Jen May Rose Byrne on Bridesmaids X Men First Class Sequels and the Films That Made Her Career Movieline PMC Archived from the original on June Retrieved October Jump up Benjamin Walker to Star in Broadway Transfer of Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson Broadway com July Archived from the original on June Retrieved October Jump up Nicholas Hoult From 'Boy' to 'Man' Variety Retrieved Jump up to a b Children of the Atom Filming X Men First Class Transformation Featurette X Men First Class Blu Ray th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up Eggertsen Chris September Lucas Till talks playing Havok in X Men First Class HitFix Retrieved August Jump up to a b Tilly Chris May X Men First Class Banshee Interview heather-lyn heather-manfield heather-thomas heather-torrance heather-wayne IGN Retrieved December Jump up to a b c d Children of the Atom Filming X Men First Class Band of Brothers Featurette X Men First Class Blu Ray th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up Knolle Sharon January Kevin Bacon on 'X Men First Class' and Whether He'll See the 'Footloose' Remake MovieFone AOL Archived from the original on June Retrieved December Jump up Bentley David May Jason Flemyng on X Men First Class and nearly playing Beast in X Men The Last Stand Coventry Telegraph Coventry UK The Geek Files Retrieved October Jump up Fleming Mike August Oliver Platt Joins 'X Men First Class' Deadline com Retrieved August Jump up Williams Andrew March Dexter Fletcher I turned down a part in X Men First Class in order to direct Wild Bill Metro Retrieved February Jump up Keegan Rebecca January 'X Men First Class' January Jones copes with sexed up 'insane' costumes Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on June Retrieved October Jump up Morales Wilson May X Men First Class Exclusive Edi Gathegi Blackfilm com Archived from the original on June Retrieved December Jump up to a b c d e f g h i j Failes Ian June Making Mutants for X Men First Class fxguide com Archived from the original on November Retrieved October Jump up Ator de novo X Men fala sobre vilão do filme in Portuguese R com June Retrieved December Jump up Marshall Rick June 'X Men First Class' Easter Eggs Five Things To Look For This Weekend MTV Retrieved June Jump up Goldman Eric November Wise Casting for X Men First Class IGN Retrieved December Jump up Ryan Mike September Hugh Jackman on How His 'X Men First Class' Cameo Almost Didn't Happen Moviefone Retrieved December Jump up Morrison Patt Patt Morrison Asks Comics genius Stan Lee Los Angeles Times Retrieved Jump up to a b c d e f Children of the Atom Filming X Men First Class Second Genesis Featurette X Men First Class Blu Ray th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up Douglas Edward April Zak Penn on His Potential X Men Spin off SuperheroHype com Retrieved December Jump up to a b Davis Erik May Zak Penn Talks X Men Spin Off Incredible Hulk Casting Cinematical column Moviefone AOL Archived from the original on June Retrieved February Jump up Michael Fleming Claude Brodesser December Fox pages Turner to pen Magneto spinoff pic Variety Retrieved April Jump up Michelle Kung December Checking in with 'Magneto' Entertainment Weekly Retrieved April Jump up to a b Michael Fleming April Fox Marvel move on 'garrett' Variety Retrieved April Jump up Stax May McKellen Talks Magneto Movie IGN News Corporation Retrieved April Jump up Hassan Genevieve July McKellen keen for X Men spin off BBC News Online Retrieved July Jump up Shawn Adler May 'X Men' Spin Off 'Magneto' To Reveal Anti Hero Origin Story MTV Retrieved May Jump up More superhero movies head for Australia NineMSN July Archived from the original on June Retrieved August Jump up Jennifer Vineyard October Conceptual Artist Gives Glimpse Of 'Magneto' Origins MTV Splash Page Retrieved October Jump up Spelling Ian April Magneto prequel still possible depending on Wolverine Sci Fi Wire blastr Archived from the original on June Retrieved July Jump up Jeffrey Ressner June Klieg Lights Big City The Politico Retrieved June Jump up Steve Weintraub December David Goyer reveals Magneto and Invisible Man Info Collider Retrieved December Jump up Siegel Tatiana and Marc Graser November Fox Josh Schwartz mutate 'X Men' Variety Retrieved November Jump up to a b Fleming Michael December Bryan Singer to direct 'X Men First Class' Variety Retrieved June Jump up Marshall Rick March Former 'X Men First Class' Writer Josh Schwartz Explains His Exit MTV Retrieved January Jump up Ian McKellen won't make X Men return Lifestyle from Yahoo October Retrieved October Jump up 'X Men Origins Magneto' Producer Says Film Might Never Be Made Lifestyle from Yahoo October Retrieved October Jump up De Semlyen Nick October The Future the X Men Franchise Magneto Empire Retrieved October Jump up Kit Borys December Heat Vision Q A Bryan Singer on 'X Men First Class ' 'Avatar' and more Heat Vision Retrieved madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone April Jump up Topel Fred August Lauren Shuler Donner on X Men First Class CraveOnline Retrieved September Jump up Kit Borys April Bryan Singer Why I Challenged 'X Men First Class' Writing Credits Exclusive The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved May Jump up Fernandez Jay A Kit Borys April Complex 'X Men First Class' Screenplay Credit Dispute Resolved Exclusive The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved May Jump up Kit Boris April 'X Men First Class' Writing Credits Appeal Denied The Hollywood Reporter Archived from the original on May Retrieved May Jump up Pirrello Phil May Inside X Men First Class IGN Retrieved December Jump up Fleming Mike March Bryan Singer Producing 'X Men First Class' Deadline com Retrieved July Jump up to a b Douglas Edward Exclusive Interview with X Men First Class Director Matthew Vaughn Superhero Hype Retrieved June Jump up McClintock Pamela May 'X Men' prequel to open June Variety Retrieved December Jump up Boucher Geoff September 'Inception' wake up call 'X Men First Class' director jettisons similar dream time scenes Los Angeles Times Retrieved September Jump up to a b c Lussier Germain May Film Interview 'X Men First Class' Director Matthew Vaughn Film Retrieved December Jump up Tilly Chris March X Men First Class Set Visit IGN Retrieved May Jump up White Cindy August X Men Following Star Trek's Lead IGN Retrieved August Jump up O'Hara Helen X Men First Class Interviews Empire Retrieved December Jump up Hearn Dan October X Men stars film prequel in city The Oxford Student Retrieved October Jump up Dawtrey Adam November Snaring the big Hollywood pictures Variety Retrieved December Jump up Conn Lesley September X Men may be landing in Savannah Savannah Morning News Retrieved December Jump up to a b Conn Lesley October X Men pick Jekyll Island over Tybee Island Savannah Morning News Retrieved December Jump up X Men First Class Scouting Locations in Michigan SuperheroHype com June Retrieved September Jump up to a b Knowles Harry August So Bryan Singer just called regarding Matthew Vaughn's X Men First Class I'm quite excited now Ain't It Cool News Retrieved December Jump up Scholz Pablo May Villa Gesell Clarín in Spanish Buenos Aires Retrieved June A alguien se le ocurrió que el villano que interpreta Kevin Bacon en la Segunda Guerra Mundial se refugiaba en los ‘ en la Argentina 'Villa Gesell' dicen y en el plano siguiente se lee que están en 'Villa Gesell' Pero se ve un lago con montañas de fondo Y la música tiene ritmo español Y el cantinero dice 'cabrón' O será como el París Texas de Wenders Muchachos paremos la mano Haber entrado en Google Maps Translation Somebody thought that the villain played by Kevin Bacon during WWII takes refuge at s Argentina 'Villa Gesell' they say and on the next screen it is read that they are in 'Villa Gesell' But a lake with mountains in the background can be seen And the music has a Spanish rhythm And the barman says 'cabrón' Or is it like Wim Wenders' Paris Texas Hold on a little people If you just checked with Google maps Jump
up to a b c Children of the Atom Filming X Men First Class New Frontier A Dose of Style Featurette X Men First Class Blu Ray th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up to a b Giardina Carolyn October Fox Exec at VES Panel We Thought James Franco's Character Should Die in 'Apes' The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved May Jump up McNary Dave February Rain can't dampen production in L A Variety Retrieved February Jump up to a b Boucher Geoff January 'X Men First Class' Three exclusive photos and a report from the stressed out set Los Angeles Times Retrieved May Jump up Zeitchik Steven June With 'X Men First Class' Fox tries a new mutation Los Angeles Times Retrieved June Jump up Retro Cool X Men First Class DVD th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up Children of the Atom Filming X Men First Class Suiting Up Featurette X Men First Class Blu Ray th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up to a b c d e f Desowitz Bill June Going Deeper into X Men's Origins Animation World Network p Archived from 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Virginia Films shot in Georgia U S state Films shot in Russia Films shot in Washington D C Holocaust films Human experimentation in fiction Malcolm X 'mælk m ' ks May February born Malcolm Little and later also known as el Hajj Malik el Shabazz A Arabic Arabic pronunciation l hæ 'mæl k l ' b z was an African American Muslim minister and human rights activist To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history Malcolm X was effectively orphaned early in life His father was killed when he was six and his mother was placed in a mental hospital when he was thirteen after which he lived in a series of foster homes In at age he went to prison for larceny and breaking and entering While in prison he became a member of the Nation of Islam and after his parole in quickly rose to become one of the organization's most influential leaders He served as the public face of the controversial group for a dozen years In his autobiography Malcolm X wrote proudly of some of the social achievements the Nation made while he was a member particularly its free drug rehabilitation program The Nation promoted black supremacy advocated the separation of black and white Americans and rejected the civil rights movement for its emphasis on integration By March Malcolm X had grown disillusioned with the Nation of Islam and its leader Elijah Muhammad Expressing many regrets about his time with them which he had come to regard as largely wasted he embraced Sunni Islam After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East which included completing the Hajj he repudiated the Nation of Islam disavowed racism and founded Muslim Mosque Inc and the Organization of Afro American Unity He continued to emphasize Pan Africanism black self determination and black self defense In February he was assassinated by three members of the Nation of Islam Contents hide Early years Nation of Islam period Prison Early ministry Marriage and family Hinton Johnson incident Increasing prominence Advocacy and teachings while with Nation Effect on Nation membership Disillusionment and departure NOI lack of response to LAPD violence Sexual misbehavior by Elijah Muhammad NOI response to his remarks on Kennedy assassination Media attention to Malcolm X over Muhammad Departure from NOI Activity after leaving NOI Pilgrimage to Mecca Traveling abroad Africa France and United Kingdom Return to United States Death threats and intimidation from Nation of Islam Assassination Funeral Reactions Allegations of conspiracy Philosophy Beliefs of the Nation of Islam Independent views Legacy Portrayals in film and on stage Memorials and tributes Published works References Notes Footnotes Works cited Further reading External links Early years A ledger with names ages and other personal information United States Census return listing the Little family lines ff Malcolm Little was born May in Omaha Nebraska the fourth of seven children of Grenada born Louise Helen Little née Norton and Georgia born Earl Little Earl was an outspoken Baptist lay speaker and he and Louise were admirers of Pan African activist Marcus Garvey Earl was local leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA and Louise served as secretary and branch reporter sending news of local UNIA activities to Negro World they inculcated self reliance and black pride in their children Malcolm X later said that white violence killed three of his father's brothers Because of Ku Klux Klan threats Earl's UNIA activities were spreading trouble the family relocated in to Milwaukee Wisconsin and shortly thereafter to Lansing Michigan There the family was frequently harassed by the Black Legion a white racist group When the family home burned in Earl accused the Black Legion When Little was six his father died in what was officially ruled a streetcar accident though his mother Louise believed Earl had been murdered by the Black Legion Rumors that white racists were responsible for his father's death were widely circulated and were very disturbing to Malcolm X as a child As an adult he expressed conflicting beliefs on the question After a dispute with creditors Louise received a life insurance benefit nominally about in dollars B in payments of per month the issuer of another larger policy refused to pay claiming her husband Earl had committed suicide To make ends meet Louise rented out part of her garden and her sons hunted game In a man Louise had been dating marriage had seemed a possibility vanished from her life when she became pregnant with his child In late she had a nervous breakdown and was committed to Kalamazoo State Hospital The children were separated and sent to foster homes Malcolm and his siblings secured her release years later Malcolm Little excelled in junior high school but dropped out after a white teacher told him that practicing law his aspiration at the time was no realistic goal for a nigger Later Malcolm X recalled feeling that the white world offered no place for a career oriented black man regardless of talent From age to Little held a variety of jobs while living with his half sister Ella Little Collins in Roxbury a largely African American neighborhood of Boston After a short time in Flint Michigan he moved to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in where he engaged in drug dealing gambling racketeering robbery and pimping According to recent biographies he also occasionally had sex with other men usually for money His daughter Ilyasah Shabazz and Ta Nehisi Coates questioned the accuracy of these accounts Malcolm X was referred to as Detroit Red because of the reddish hair he inherited from his Scots maternal grandfather Little was declared mentally disqualified for military service after he told draft board officials he wanted to be sent down south to organize them nigger soldiers … steal us some guns and kill us some crackers In late Little returned to Boston where he and four accomplices committed a series of burglaries targeting wealthy white families In he was arrested while picking up a stolen watch he had left at a shop for repairs and in February began serving an eight to ten year sentence at Charlestown
State Prison for larceny and breaking and entering Nation of Islam period Further information Nation of Islam Prison Between Mr Muhammad's teachings my cor­re­spond­ence my vis­i­tors and my reading of books months passed without my even thinking about being impris­oned In fact up to then I had never been so truly free in my life Malcolm X When Little was in prison he met fellow convict John Bembry a self educated man he would later describe as the first man I had ever seen command total respect … with words Under Bembry's influence Little developed a voracious appetite for reading At this time several of his siblings wrote to him about the Nation of Islam a relatively new religious movement preaching black self reliance and ultimately the return of the African diaspora to Africa where they would be free from white American and European domination He showed scant interest at first but after his brother Reginald wrote in Malcolm don't eat any more pork and don't smoke any more cigarettes I'll show you how to get out of prison he

quit smoking and began to refuse pork After a visit in which Reginald described the group's teachings including the belief that white people are devils Little concluded that every relationship he'd had with whites had been tainted by dishonesty injustice greed and hatred Little whose hostility to religion had earned him the prison nickname Satan became receptive to the message of the Nation of Islam In late Little wrote to Elijah Muhammad the leader of the Nation of Islam Muhammad advised him to renounce his past humbly bow in prayer to Allah and promise never to engage in destructive behavior again Though he later recalled the inner struggle he had before bending his knees to pray Little soon became a member of the Nation of Islam maintaining a regular correspondence with Muhammad In the FBI opened a file on Little after he wrote a letter from prison to President Truman expressing opposition to the Korean War and declaring himself a Communist That year Little also began signing his name Malcolm X He explained in his autobiography that the Muslim's X symbolized the true African family name that he could never know For me my 'X' replaced the white slavemaster name of 'Little' which some blue eyed devil named Little had imposed upon my paternal forebears Early ministry hide Part of a series on Nation of Islam Mosque Maryam jpg Mosque Maryam Chicago Illinois United States Influencers show Leaders show Beliefs and theology show Publications show Offshoots show Subsidiaries show Related organizations show History show A coloured voting box svg Politics portal Allah green svg Islam portal v t e After his parole in August Malcolm X visited Elijah Muhammad in Chicago In June he was named assistant minister of the Nation's Temple Number One in Detroit C Later that year he established Boston's Temple Number in March he expanded Temple Number in Philadelphia and two months later he was selected to lead Temple Number in Harlem where he rapidly expanded its membership In the FBI began surveillance of him julie-simone juliet-anderson juliet-graham juliette-carelton kacey-jordan kagney-linn-karter turning its attention from Malcolm X's possible communist associations to his rapid ascent in the Nation of Islam During Malcolm X continued his successful recruitment of members on behalf of the Nation of Islam He established temples in Springfield Massachusetts Number Hartford Connecticut Number and Atlanta Georgia Number Hundreds of African Americans were joining the Nation of Islam every month Besides his skill as a speaker Malcolm X had an impressive physical presence He stood feet inches m tall and weighed about pounds kg One writer described him as powerfully built and another as mesmerizingly handsome … and always spotlessly well groomed Marriage and family In Betty Sanders met Malcolm X after one of his lectures then again at a dinner party soon she was regularly attending his lectures In she joined the Nation of Islam changing her name to Betty X One on one dates were contrary to the Nation's teachings so the couple courted at social events with dozens or hundreds of others and Malcolm X made a point of inviting her on the frequent group visits he led to New York City's museums and libraries Malcolm X proposed during a telephone call from Detroit in January and they married two days later They had six daughters Attallah b named after Attila the Hun D Qubilah b named after Kublai Khan Ilyasah b named after Elijah Muhammad Gamilah Lumumba b named after Patrice Lumumba and twins Malikah and Malaak b after their father's death and named in his honor Hinton Johnson incident The American public first became aware of Malcolm X in after Hinton Johnson E a Nation of Islam member was beaten by two New York City police officers On April Johnson and two other passersby also Nation of Islam members saw the officers beating an African American man with nightsticks When they attempted to intervene shouting You're not in Alabama this is New York one of the officers turned on Johnson beating him so severely that he suffered brain contusions and subdural hemorrhaging All four African American men were arrested Alerted by a witness Malcolm X and a small group of Muslims went to the police station and demanded to see Johnson Police initially denied that any Muslims were being held but when the crowd grew to about five hundred they allowed Malcolm X to speak with Johnson Afterward Malcolm X insisted on arranging for an ambulance to take Johnson to Harlem Hospital Johnson's injuries were treated and by the time he was returned to the police station some four thousand people had gathered outside Inside the station Malcolm X and an attorney were making bail arrangements for two of the Muslims Johnson was not bailed and police said he could not go back to the hospital until his arraignment the following day Considering the situation to be at an impasse Malcolm X stepped outside the station house and gave a hand signal to the crowd Nation members silently left after which the rest of the crowd also dispersed One police officer told the New York Amsterdam News No one man should have that much power Within a month the New York City
Police Department arranged to keep Malcolm X under surveillance it also made inquiries with authorities in other cities in which he had lived and prisons in which he had served time A grand jury declined to indict the officers who beat Johnson In October Malcolm X sent an angry telegram to the police commissioner Soon the police department assigned undercover officers to infiltrate the Nation of Islam Increasing prominence By the late s Malcolm X was using a new name Malcolm Shabazz or Malik el Shabazz although he was still widely referred to as Malcolm X His comments on issues and events were being widely reported in print on radio and on television and he was featured in a New York City television broadcast about the Nation of Islam The Hate That Hate Produced In September at the United Nations General Assembly in New York City Malcolm X was invited to the official functions of several African nations He met Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinea and Kenneth Kaunda of the Zambian African National Congress Fidel Castro also attended the Assembly and Malcolm X met publicly with him as part of a welcoming committee of Harlem community leaders Castro was sufficiently impressed with Malcolm X to suggest a private meeting and after two hours of talking Castro invited Malcolm X to visit Cuba Advocacy and teachings while with Nation From his adoption of the Nation of Islam in until he broke with it in Malcolm X promoted the Nation's teachings These included the beliefs that black people are the original people of the world that white people are devils that blacks are superior to whites and that the demise of the white race is imminent Elijah Muhammad is speaking at a podium and people are listening intently Cassius Clay in dark suit watches Elijah Muhammad speak Many whites and some blacks were alarmed by Malcolm X and the statements he made during this period He and the Nation of Islam were described as hatemongers black supremacists racists violence seekers segregationists and a threat to improved race relations He was accused of being antisemitic One of the goals of the civil rights movement was to end disenfranchisement of African Americans but the Nation of Islam forbade its members from participating in voting and other aspects of the political process Civil rights organizations denounced him and the Nation as irresponsible extremists whose views did not represent African Americans Malcolm X was equally critical of the civil rights movement He labeled Martin Luther King Jr a chump and other civil rights leaders stooges of the white establishment F He called the March on Washington the farce on Washington and said he did not know why so many black people were excited about a demonstration run by whites in front of a statue of a president who has been dead for a hundred years and who didn't like us when he was alive While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from whites He proposed that African Americans should return to Africa and that in the interim a separate country for black people in America should be created He rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence expressing the opinion that black people should defend and advance themselves by any means necessary His speeches had a powerful effect on his audiences who were generally African Americans in northern and western cities Many of them tired of being told to wait for freedom justice equality and respect felt that he articulated their complaints better than did the civil rights movement Effect on Nation membership Malcolm X is holding a camera and taking a picture of Clay who is sitting at a luncheonette counter Malcolm X photographs Cassius Clay after Clay became the world heavyweight champion Malcolm X is widely regarded as the second most influential leader of the Nation of Islam after Elijah Muhammad He was largely credited with the group's dramatic increase in membership between the early s and early s from to by one estimate G from to or by another H He inspired the boxer Cassius Clay later known as Muhammad Ali to join the Nation and they soon formed a relationship which Clay's cornerman Ferdie Pacheco later described as like very close brothers When Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam and converted to Sunni Islam he tried to convince Clay to join him but Clay declined and refused to speak to him again When Ali left the group in and became a Sunni Muslim he wrote t urning my back on Malcolm was one of the mistakes that I regret most in my life Malcolm X mentored and guided Louis X later known as Louis Farrakhan who eventually became the leader of the Nation of Islam Malcolm X also served as a mentor and confidant to Elijah Muhammad's son Wallace D Muhammad the son told Malcolm X about his skepticism toward his father's unorthodox approach to Islam Wallace Muhammad was excommunicated from the Nation of Islam several times although he was eventually readmitted Disillusionment and departure During and events caused Malcolm X to reassess his relationship with the Nation of Islam martine-schultz maryanne-fisher mary-hubay mary-ramunno mary-stuart mascha-mouton maud-kennedy mauvais-denoir and particularly its leader Elijah Muhammad NOI lack of response to LAPD violence In late there were violent confrontations between NOI members and police in South Central Los Angeles and numerous Muslims were arrested They were acquitted but tensions had been raised Just after midnight on April LAPD officers raided Temple Number randomly beating NOI members Seven Muslims were shot one Ronald Stokes a Korean War veteran was shot fatally after surrendering to police A number of Muslims were indicted after the event but no charges were made against the police To Malcolm X the desecration and violence demanded action and he used what Farrakhan later called his gangsterlike past to rally the more hardened of the New York members to go to Los Angeles for direct action against the police He also spoke of the NOI starting to work with civil rights organizations local black politicians and religious groups Elijah Muhammad did not support him in any of these initiatives claiming the other organizations would turn to NOI in time and saying …you don't go to war over a provocation Malcolm X was stunned by this response Louis X saw this as an important turning point in the deteriorating relationship between Malcolm X and Muhammad Sexual misbehavior by Elijah Muhammad Rumors were circulating that Muhammad was conducting extramarital affairs with young Nation secretaries which would constitute a serious violation of Nation teachings After first discounting the rumors Malcolm X came to believe them after he spoke with Muhammad's son Wallace and with the women making the accusations Muhammad confirmed the rumors in attempting to justify his behavior by referring to precedents set by Biblical prophets NOI response to his remarks on Kennedy assassination Malcolm X before a press conference Malcolm X before a press conference On December when asked for a comment about the assassination of President John F Kennedy Malcolm X said that it was a case of chickens coming home to roost He added that chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad they've always made me glad The New York Times wrote in further criticism of Mr Kennedy the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba Congo leader of Medgar Evers civil rights leader and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church These he said were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost' The remarks prompted a widespread public outcry The Nation of Islam which had sent a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination publicly censured their former shining star Malcolm X retained his post and rank as minister but was prohibited from public speaking for days Media attention to Malcolm X over Muhammad Malcolm X had by now become a media favorite and some Nation members believed he was a threat to Muhammad's leadership Publishers had shown interest in Malcolm X's autobiography and when Louis Lomax wrote his book about the Nation When the Word Is Given he used a photograph of Malcolm X on the cover He also reproduced five of his speeches but featured only one of Muhammad's all of which greatly upset Muhammad and made him envious Departure from NOI On March Malcolm X publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam He was still a Muslim he said but felt that the Nation had gone as far as it can because of its rigid teachings He said he was planning to organize a black nationalist organization to heighten the political consciousness of African Americans He also expressed a desire to work with other civil rights leaders saying that Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so in the past Activity after leaving NOI Malcolm X and Martin Luther King speak to each other thoughtfully as others look on Malcolm X's only meeting with Martin Luther King Jr March After leaving the Nation of Islam Malcolm X founded Muslim Mosque Inc a religious organization and the Organization of Afro American Unity a secular group that advocated Pan Africanism On March he met Martin Luther King Jr for the first and only time and only long enough for photographs to be taken in Washington D C as both men attended the Senate's debate on the Civil Rights bill I In April Malcolm X gave a speech titled The Ballot or the Bullet in which he advised African Americans to exercise their right to vote wisely but cautioned that if the government continued to prevent African Americans from attaining full equality it might be necessary for them to take up arms In the weeks after he left the Nation of Islam several Sunni Muslims encouraged Malcolm X to learn about their faith He soon converted to the Sunni faith Pilgrimage to Mecca In April with financial help from his half sister Ella Little Collins Malcolm X flew to Jeddah Saudi Arabia as the start of his Hajj the pilgrimage to Mecca obligatory for every Muslim who is able to do so He was delayed in Jeddah when his U S citizenship and inability to speak Arabic caused his status as a Muslim to be questioned He had received Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam's book The
Eternal Message of Muhammad with his visa approval and he contacted the author Azzam's son arranged for his release and lent him his personal hotel suite The next morning Malcolm X learned that Prince Faisal had designated him as a state guest Several days later after completing the Hajj rituals Malcolm X had an audience with the prince Malcolm X later said that seeing Muslims of all colors from blue eyed blonds to black skinned Africans interacting as equals led him to see Islam as a means by which racial problems could be overcome Traveling abroad Africa Malcolm X in Malcolm X after his pilgrimage to Mecca Malcolm X had already visited the United Arab Republic a short lived political union between Egypt and Syria Sudan Nigeria and Ghana in to make arrangements for a tour of Africa by Elijah Muhammad After his journey to Mecca in he visited Africa a second time He returned to the United States in late May and flew to Africa again in July During these visits he met officials gave interviews and spoke on radio and television in Egypt Ethiopia Tanganyika Nigeria Ghana Guinea Sudan Senegal Liberia Algeria and Morocco In Cairo he attended the second meeting of the Organization of African Unity as a representative of the Organization of Afro American Unity By the end of this third visit he had met with essentially all of Africa's prominent leaders Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria had all invited Malcolm X to serve in their governments After he spoke at the University of Ibadan the Nigerian Muslim Students Association bestowed on him the honorary Yoruba name Omowale the son who has come home He later called this his most treasured honor France and United Kingdom On November on his way home from Africa Malcolm X stopped in Paris where he spoke in the Salle de la Mutualité A week later on November Malcolm X flew to the United Kingdom and on December took part in a debate at the Oxford Union Society The motion was taken from a statement made earlier that year by U S presidential candidate Barry Goldwater Extremism in the Defense of Liberty is No Vice Moderation in the Pursuit of Justice is No Virtue Malcolm X argued for the affirmative and interest in the debate was so high that it was televised nationally by the BBC On February Malcolm X flew to Britain again and on February he addressed the first meeting of the Council of African Organizations in London The next day he tried to return to France but was refused entry On February he visited Smethwick near Birmingham where the Conservative Party had won the parliamentary seat in the general election The town had become a byword for racial division after Conservative supporters used the slogan If you want a nigger for a neighbour vote Labour In Smethwick he compared the treatment of colored residents with the treatment of Jews under Hitler saying I would not wait for the fascist element in Smethwick to erect gas ovens Return to United States After returning to the U S Malcolm X addressed a wide variety of audiences He spoke regularly at meetings held by dagmar-lost daisy-layne dallas-miko dana-dylan dana-lynn Muslim Mosque Inc and the Organization of Afro American Unity and was one of the most sought after speakers on college campuses One of his top aides later wrote that he welcomed every opportunity to speak to college students He also addressed public meetings of the Socialist Workers Party speaking at their Militant Labor Forum He was interviewed on the subjects of segregation and the Nation of Islam by Robert Penn Warren for Warren's book Who Speaks for the Negro Death threats and intimidation from Nation of Islam Malcolm X carrying a rifle peers out the window Malcolm X guards his family in an iconic Ebony photo Throughout as his conflict with the Nation of Islam intensified Malcolm X was repeatedly threatened In February a leader of Temple Number Seven ordered the bombing of Malcolm X's car In March Muhammad told Boston minister Louis X later known as Louis Farrakhan that hypocrites like Malcolm should have their heads cut off the April edition of Muhammad Speaks featured a cartoon depicting Malcolm X's bouncing severed head On June FBI surveillance recorded a telephone call in which Betty Shabazz was told that her husband was as good as dead Four days later an FBI informant received a tip that Malcolm X is going to be bumped off That same month the Nation sued to reclaim Malcolm X's residence in East Elmhurst Queens New York His family was ordered to vacate but on February the night before a hearing on postponing the eviction the house was destroyed by fire On July Muhammad aide John Ali suspected of being an undercover FBI agent referred to Malcolm X by saying Anyone who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad puts their life in jeopardy In the December issue of Muhammad Speaks Louis X wrote that such a man as Malcolm is worthy of death The September issue of Ebony dramatized Malcolm X's defiance of these threats by publishing a photograph of him holding an M carbine while peering out a window Assassination External image The Violent End of the Man Called Malcolm LIFE March Photos taken moments after the fatal shots were fired including one of activist Yuri Kochiyama cradling the dying Malcolm X's head On February Malcolm X told interviewer Gordon Parks that the Nation of Islam was actively trying to kill him On February he was preparing to address the Organization of Afro American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom when someone in the person audience yelled Nigger Get your hand outta my pocket As Malcolm X and his bodyguards tried to quell the disturbance J a man rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a sawed off shotgun and two other men charged the stage firing semi automatic handguns Malcolm X was pronounced dead at pm shortly after arriving at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital The autopsy identified gunshot wounds to the chest left shoulder arms and legs including ten buckshot wounds from the initial shotgun blast One gunman Nation of Islam member Talmadge Hayer also known as Thomas Hagan was beaten by the crowd before police arrived Witnesses identified the other gunmen as Nation members Norman
X Butler and Thomas X Johnson All three were convicted of murder in March and sentenced to life in prison At trial Hayer confessed but refused to identify the other assailants except to assert that they were not Butler and Johnson In and he signed affidavits reasserting Butler's and Johnson's innocence naming four other Nation members as participants in the murder or its planning These affidavits did not result in the case being reopened An overturned chair in front of a mural on which several chalk circles have been drawn around bullet holes The Audubon Ballroom stage after the murder Circles on backdrop mark bullet holes Butler today known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz was paroled in and became the head of the Nation's Harlem mosque in he maintains his innocence In prison Johnson who changed his name to Khalil Islam rejected the Nation's teachings and converted to Sunni Islam Released in he maintained his innocence until his death in August Hayer today known as Mujahid Halim was paroled in A CNN Special Report Witnessed The Assassination of Malcolm X was broadcast on February It featured interviews with several people who worked with him including A Peter Bailey and Earl Grant as well as the daughter of Malcolm X Ilyasah Shabazz Funeral The public viewing February at Unity Funeral Home in Harlem was attended by some to mourners For the funeral on February loudspeakers were set up for the overflow crowd outside Harlem's thousand seat Faith Temple of the Church of God in Christ and a local television station carried the service live Among the civil rights leaders attending were John Lewis Bayard Rustin James Forman James Farmer Jesse Gray and Andrew Young Actor and activist Ossie Davis delivered the eulogy describing Malcolm X as our shining black prince who didn't hesitate to die because he loved us so There are those who will consider it their duty as friends of the Negro people to tell us to revile him to flee even from the presence of his memory to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times Many will ask what Harlem aurora aurora-snow autumn-bliss autumn-rayne ava-devine ava-lauren finds to honor in this stormy controversial and bold young captain and we will smile Many will say turn away away from this man for he is not a man but a demon a monster a subverter and an enemy of the black man and we will smile They will say that he is of hate a fanatic a racist who can only bring evil to the cause for which you struggle And we will answer and say to them Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm Did you ever touch him or have him smile at you Did you ever really listen to him Did he ever do a mean thing Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance For if you did you would know him And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him And in honoring him we honor the best in ourselves Malcolm X was buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale New York Friends took up the gravediggers' shovels to complete the burial themselves Actor and activist Ruby Dee and Juanita Poitier wife of Sidney Poitier established the Committee of Concerned Mothers to raise money for a home for

his family and for his children's educations Reactions Reactions to Malcolm X's assassination were varied In a telegram to Betty Shabazz Martin Luther King Jr expressed his sadness at the shocking and tragic assassination of your husband He said While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had a great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems that we face as a race Elijah Muhammad told the annual Savior's Day convention on February Malcolm X got just what he preached but denied any involvement with the murder We didn't want to kill Malcolm and didn't try to kill him Muhammad said We know such ignorant foolish teachings would bring him to his own end Writer James Baldwin who had been a friend of Malcolm X's was in London when he heard the news of the assassination He responded with indignation towards the reporters interviewing him shouting You did it It is because of you the men that created this white supremacy that this man is dead You are not guilty but you did it Your mills your cities your rape of a continent started all this The New York Post wrote that even his sharpest critics recognized his brilliance often wild unpredictable and eccentric but nevertheless possessing promise that must now remain unrealized The New York Times wrote that Malcolm X was an extraordinary and twisted man who turn ed many true gifts to evil purpose and that his life was strangely and pitifully wasted Time called him an unashamed demagogue whose creed was violence Outside of the U S and particularly in Africa the press was sympathetic The Daily Times of Nigeria wrote that Malcolm X will have a place in the palace of martyrs The Ghanaian Times likened him to John Brown and Patrice Lumumba and counted him among a host of Africans and Americans who were martyred in freedom's cause The Guangming Daily published in Beijing stated that Malcolm was murdered because he fought for freedom and equal rights in Cuba El Mundo described the assassination as another racist crime to eradicate by violence the struggle against discrimination Allegations of conspiracy Louis Farrakhan in Louis Farrakhan in Within days the question of who bore responsibility for the assassination was being publicly debated On February James Farmer the leader of the Congress of Racial Equality announced at a news conference that local drug dealers and not the Nation of Islam were to blame Others accused the NYPD the FBI or the CIA citing the lack of police protection the ease with which the assassins entered the Audubon Ballroom and the failure of the police to preserve the crime scene In the s the public learned about COINTELPRO and other secret FBI programs established to infiltrate and disrupt civil rights organizations during the s and s John Ali national secretary of the Nation of Islam was nicky-reed nicole-berg nicole-bernard nicole-black nicole-grey nicole-london nicole-parks nicole-scott nicole-taylor believed
to have been an FBI undercover agent Malcolm X had confided to a reporter that Ali exacerbated tensions between him and Elijah Muhammad and that he considered Ali his archenemy within the Nation of Islam leadership Ali had a meeting with Talmadge Hayer one of the men convicted of killing Malcolm X the night before the assassination The Shabazz family are among those who have accused Louis Farrakhan of involvement in Malcolm X's assassination In a speech Farrakhan seemed to acknowledge the possibility that the Nation of Islam was responsible Was Malcolm your traitor or ours And if we dealt with him like a nation deals with a traitor what the hell business is it of yours A nation has to be able to deal with traitors and cutthroats and turncoats In a Minutes interview that aired during May Farrakhan stated that some things he said may have led to the assassination of Malcolm X I may have been complicit in words that I spoke he said I acknowledge that and regret that any word that I have said caused the loss of life of a human being A few days later Farrakhan denied that he ordered the assassination of Malcolm X although he again acknowledged that he created the atmosphere that ultimately led to Malcolm X's assassination No consensus has been reached on who was responsible for the assassination In August an online petition was started using the White House online petition mechanism to call on the government to release without alteration any files they still held relating to the murder of Malcolm X The petition failed to attract enough signatures to mandate a White House response Philosophy Except for his autobiography Malcolm X left no published writings His philosophy is known almost entirely from the many speeches and interviews he gave from until his death Many of those speeches especially from the last year of his life were recorded and have been published Beliefs of the Nation of Islam Further information Beliefs and theology of the Nation of Islam The white liberal differs from the white con­serv­a­tive only in one way the liberal is more deceitful than the conservative Malcolm X While he was a member of the Nation of Islam Malcolm X taught its beliefs and his statements often began with the phrase The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that It is virtually impossible now to discern whether Malcolm X's personal beliefs at the time diverged from the teachings of the Nation of Islam K After he left the Nation in he compared himself to a ventriloquist's dummy who could only say what Elijah Muhammad told him to say L Malcolm X taught that black people were the original people of the world and that white people were a race of devils who were created by an evil scientist named Yakub The Nation of Islam believed that black people were superior to white people and that the demise of the white race was imminent When questioned concerning his statements that white people were devils Malcolm X said history proves the white man is a devil Anybody who rapes and plunders and enslaves and steals and drops hell bombs on people anybody who does these things is nothing but a devil Malcolm X said that Islam was the true religion of black mankind and that Christianity was the white man's religion that had been imposed upon African Americans by their slave masters He said that the Nation of Islam followed Islam as it was practiced around the world but the Nation's teachings varied from those of other Muslims because they were adapted to the uniquely pitiful condition of black people in America He taught that Wallace Fard Muhammad the founder of the Nation was Allah incarnate and that Elijah Muhammad was his Messenger or Prophet M While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of blacks from whites The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for African Americans in the southern or southwestern United States as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa Malcolm X suggested the United States government owed reparations to black people for the unpaid labor of their ancestors He also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence advocating instead that black people should defend themselves Independent views I did many things as a Black Muslim that I'm sorry for now Well I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost It cost me years Malcolm X After leaving the Nation of Islam Malcolm X announced his willingness to work with leaders of the civil rights movement though he advocated some changes to their policies He felt that calling the movement a struggle for civil rights would keep the issue within the United States while changing the focus to human rights would make it an international concern The movement could then bring its complaints before the United Nations where Malcolm X said the emerging nations of the world would add their support Malcolm X argued that if the U S government was unwilling or unable to protect black people black people should protect themselves He said that he and the other members of the Organization of Afro American Unity were determined to defend themselves from aggressors and to secure freedom justice and equality by whatever means necessary Malcolm X is surrounded by reporters with microphones while a television camera captures the scene Malcolm X at a press conference Malcolm X stressed the global perspective he gained from his international travels He emphasized the direct connection between the domestic struggle of African Americans for equal rights with the independence struggles of Third World nations He said that African Americans were wrong when they thought of themselves as a minority globally black people were the majority In his speeches at the Militant Labor Forum which was sponsored by the Socialist Workers Party Malcolm X criticized capitalism After one such speech when he was asked what political and economic system he wanted he said he did not know but that it was no coincidence the newly independent countries in the Third World were turning toward socialism When a reporter asked him what he thought about socialism Malcolm X asked whether it was good for black people When the reporter told him it seemed to be Malcolm X told him Then I'm for it Although he no longer called for the separation of black people from white people Malcolm X continued to advocate black nationalism which he defined as self determination for the African American community In the last months of his life however Malcolm X began to reconsider his support for black nationalism after meeting northern African revolutionaries who to all appearances were white After his Hajj Malcolm X articulated a view of white people and racism that represented a deep change from the philosophy he had supported as a minister of the Nation of Islam In a famous letter from Mecca he wrote that his experiences with white people during his pilgrimage convinced him to rearrange his thinking about race and toss aside some of his previous conclusions In a conversation with Gordon Parks two days
before his assassination Malcolm said L istening to leaders like Nasser Ben Bella and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another Brother remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant the one who wanted to help the Black Muslims and the whites get together and I told her there wasn't a ghost of a chance and she went away crying Well I've lived to regret that incident In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people Something like this kills a lot of argument I did many things as a Black Muslim that I'm sorry for now I was a zombie then like all Black Muslims I was hypnotized pointed in a certain direction and told to march Well I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost It cost me years That was a bad scene brother The sickness and madness of those days I'm glad to be free of them Up until one week before his death Malcolm X continued to publicly advocate that black people should achieve advancement by any means necessary Legacy A painted mural shows the faces of Malcolm X Ella Baker Martin Luther King and Frederick Douglass Mural on Philadelphia row houses Malcolm X has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history He is credited with raising the self esteem of black Americans and reconnecting them with their African heritage He is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in the black community in the United States Many African Americans especially those who lived in cities in the Northern and Western United States felt that Malcolm X articulated their complaints concerning inequality better than did the mainstream civil rights movement One biographer says that by giving expression to their frustration Malcolm X made clear the price that white America would have to pay if it did not accede to black America's legitimate demands In the late s increasingly radical black activists based their movements largely on Malcolm X and his teachings The Black Power movement the Black Arts Movement and the widespread adoption of the slogan Black is beautiful can all trace their roots to Malcolm X In Malcolm X began a collaboration with Alex Haley on his life story The Autobiography of Malcolm X He told Haley If I'm alive when this book comes out it will be a miracle Haley completed and published it some months after the assassination During the late s and early s there was a resurgence of interest in his life among young people Hip hop groups such as Public Enemy adopted Malcolm X as an icon and his image was displayed in hundreds of thousands of homes offices and schools as well as on T shirts and jackets This wave peaked in with the release of the film Malcolm X an adaptation of The Autobiography of Malcolm X In Time named The Autobiography of Malcolm X one of the ten most influential nonfiction books of the th century Portrayals in film and on stage See also Malcolm X film mesha-lynn mia-beck mia-lina mia-smiles michele-raven michelle-aston michelle-ferrari Portrait of Malcolm X by the artist Robert Templeton Portrait of Malcolm X by Robert Templeton from the collection Lest We Forget Images of the Black Civil Rights Movement Denzel Washington played the title role in the motion picture Malcolm X named one of the ten best films of the s by both critic Roger Ebert and director Martin Scorsese Washington had previously played the part of Malcolm X in the Off Broadway play When the Chickens Came Home to Roost Other portrayals include James Earl Jones in the film The Greatest Dick Anthony Williams in the television miniseries King and the American Playhouse production of the Jeff Stetson play The Meeting Al Freeman Jr in the television miniseries Roots The Next Generations Morgan Freeman in the television movie Death of a Prophet Ben Holt in the opera X The Life and Times of Malcolm X at the New York City Opera Gary Dourdan in the television movie King of the World Joe Morton in the television movie Ali An American Hero Mario Van Peebles in the film Ali Lindsay Owen Pierre in the television movie Betty Coretta Nigel Thatch in the film Selma Memorials and tributes The house that once stood at Pinkney Street in North Omaha Nebraska was the first home of Malcolm Little with his birth family The house was torn down in by new owners who did not know of its connection with Malcolm X The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in and is now identified by a historic marker In the site was added to the Nebraska register of historic sites and marked with a state plaque In Lansing Michigan where Malcolm Little spent his early formative years a Michigan Historical Marker was erected in to mark his homesite The city is also home to El Hajj Malik El Shabazz Academy a public charter school with an Afrocentric focus The school is located in the building where Little attended elementary school In cities around the world Malcolm X's birthday May is commemorated as Malcolm X Day The first known celebration of Malcolm X Day took place in Washington D C in The city of Berkeley California has recognized Malcolm X's birthday as a citywide holiday since Two green street signs one reading Lenox Avenue the other reading Malcolm X Boulevard Malcolm X Boulevard in New York City Many cities have renamed streets after Malcolm X In New York mayor Ed Koch proclaimed Lenox Avenue in Harlem to be Malcolm X Boulevard The name of Reid Avenue in Brooklyn New York was changed to Malcolm X Boulevard in In Oakland Avenue in Dallas Texas was renamed Malcolm X Boulevard Main Street in Lansing Michigan was renamed Malcolm X Street in Dozens of schools have been named after Malcolm X including Malcolm X Shabazz High School in Newark New Jersey Malcolm Shabazz City High School in Madison Wisconsin and Malcolm X College in Chicago Illinois Malcolm X Liberation University based on the Pan Africanist ideas of Malcolm X was founded in in North Carolina In the first library named after Malcolm X was opened the Malcolm X Branch Library and Performing Arts Center of the San Diego Public Library system The U S Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp in In Columbia University announced the opening of the Malcolm X and Dr Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center The memorial is located in the Audubon Ballroom where Malcolm X was assassinated Collections of Malcolm X's papers are held by the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture and the Robert W Woodruff Library Published works The Autobiography of Malcolm X With the assistance of Alex Haley New York Grove Press OCLC Malcolm X Speaks Selected Speeches and Statements George Breitman ed New York Merit Publishers OCLC Malcolm X Talks to Young People New York Young Socialist Alliance OCLC Two Speeches by Malcolm X New York Pathfinder Press OCLC Malcolm X on Afro American History New York Merit Publishers OCLC The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard Archie Epps ed New York Morrow OCLC By Any Means Necessary Speeches Interviews and a Letter by Malcolm X George Breitman ed New York Pathfinder Press OCLC The End of White World Supremacy Four Speeches by Malcolm X Benjamin Karim ed New York Monthly

Review Press OCLC The Last Speeches Bruce Perry ed New York Pathfinder Press ISBN Malcolm X Talks to Young People Speeches in the United States Britain and Africa Steve Clark ed New York Pathfinder Press ISBN February The Final Speeches Steve Clark ed New York Pathfinder Press ISBN The Diary of Malcolm X Herb Boyd and Ilyasah Shabazz eds Chicago Third World Press ISBN References Notes A Jump up This name includes the honorific El Hajj given on completion of the Hajj to Mecca Malise Ruthven Islam A Very Short Introduction Oxford University Press p ISBN B Jump up Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project Consumer Price Index estimate Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Retrieved January C Jump up Nation of Islam Temples were numbered according to the order in which they were established D Jump up Attallah Shabazz has said she was not named after Attila rather her name is Arabic for the gift of God E Jump up Some sources including The Autobiography of Malcolm X give the name Johnson Hinton but Benjamin Karim one of Malcolm X's top aides and former Newsweek editor and Malcolm X biographer Peter Goldman both give the name Hinton Johnson F Jump up King expressed mixed feelings toward Malcolm X He is very articulate but I totally disagree with many of his political and philosophical views I don't want to seem to sound self righteous … or that I think I have the only truth the only way Maybe he does have some of the answer I have often wished that he would talk less of violence because violence is not going to solve our problem And in his litany of articulating the despair of the Negro without offering any positive creative alternative I feel that Malcolm has done himself and our people a great disservice U rging Negroes to arm themselves and prepare to engage in violence as he has done can reap nothing but grief Haley Alex January The Playboy Interview Martin Luther King Playboy Retrieved April G Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given pp Estimates of the Black Muslim membership vary from a quarter of a million down to fifty thousand Available evidence indicates that about one hundred thousand Negroes have joined the movement at one time or another but few objective observers believe that the Black Muslims can muster more than twenty or twenty five thousand active temple people H Jump up Clegg p The common response of Malcolm X to questions about numbers 'Those who know aren't saying and those who say don't know' was typical of the attitude of the leadership I Jump up There was no time for substantive discussions between the two They were photographed greeting each other warmly smiling and shaking hands J Jump up In his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X Haley wrote that Malcolm X said Hold it Hold it Don't get excited Let's cool it brothers p According to a transcript of an audio recording Malcolm's only words were Hold it repeated ten times DeCaro p K Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given p 'I'll be honest with you ' Malcolm X said to me 'Everybody is talking about differences
between the Messenger and me It is absolutely impossible for us to differ ' L Jump up On a radio program in December Malcolm X said all of my former statements were prefaced by 'the Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches thus and so ' They weren't my statements they were his statements and I was repeating them Malcolm X Last Speeches p M Jump up Malcolm X told Lewis Lomax that The Messenger is the Prophet of Allah Lomax When the Word Is Given p On another occasion he said We never refer to the Honorable Elijah Muhammad as a prophet Malcolm X Last Speeches p Footnotes Jump up Watson Clarence Akhtar Salman Ideology and Identity Malcolm X In Akhtar Salman The African American Experience Psychoanalytic Perspectives Lanham Md Jason Aronson p ISBN Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up Vincent Ted March April The Garveyite Parents of Malcolm X The Black Scholar JSTOR subscription required help Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography pp Jump up DeCaro pp Jump up Natambu p Jump up Natambu p Jump up tina-loren tina-marie tina-russell tish-ambrose tommi-rose Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Marable

Malcolm X p Jump up Natambu p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up to a b Perry p Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up Martin Michel April Malcolm X's Daughter Disputes Claims in New Bio on Father Tell Me More NPR Retrieved July Jump up Coates Ta Nehisi April The Sexuality of Malcolm X The Atlantic Retrieved July Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography p Jump up Carson p Jump up to a b Lord Lewis Thornton Jeannye Bodipo Memba Alejandro November The Legacy of Malcolm X U S News World Report p Archived from the original on January Retrieved October Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography p Jump up Natambu p Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography p ellipsis in original Jump up Perry pp Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up Natambu p Jump up to a b Natambu pp Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography p Jump up Perry p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Perry pp Jump up Natambu p Jump up Perry pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Perry p Jump up Perry p Jump up Perry pp Jump up Carson p Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up to a b c d Marable Rediscovering Malcolm's Life p Jump up Lincoln p Jump up Rickford pp Jump up Rickford pp Jump up Shabazz Betty Malcolm X as a Husband and Father Clarke pp Jump up Rickford pp Jump up Rickford pp Jump up Hopkins Ellen November Yolanda King and Attallah Shabazz Their Fathers' Daughters Rolling Stone Retrieved June Jump up Miller Russell November X Patriot New York Retrieved June Jump up Barboza pp People have to understand the autobiography was written at a time when indeed African Americans were likening themselves to warriors to underscore our revolutionary fervor And Attallah was close to Attila the Hun the warrior But I'm named Attallah which in Arabic means 'Gift of God ' I've never been Attila Jump up Rickford p Jump up Rickford p Jump up Rickford p Jump up Rickford p Jump up Karim pp Jump up Abdullah Zain Autumn Narrating Muslim Masculinities The Fruit of Islam and the Quest for Black Redemption Spectrum A Journal on Black Men doi spectrum subscription required help Jump up to a b c d Marable Malcolm X p Jump up to a b Perry p Jump up to a b Perry p Jump up to a b c d Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Perry p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up to a b Perry pp Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Lincoln p Jump up to a b Lomax When the Word Is Given p Jump up to a b Perry p Jump up to a b Lomax When the Word Is Given p Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given p Jump up Natambu p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Natambu pp Jump up The Black Supremacists Time August Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Cone p Jump up Timeline Malcolm X Make It Plain American Experience PBS May Retrieved October Jump up to a b Lomax When the Word Is Given pp Jump up to a b Malcolm X End of White World Supremacy p Jump up to a b Lomax When the Word Is Given pp Jump up Natambu p Jump up to a b Cone pp Jump up to a b West Cornel The Paradox of the Afro American Rebellion In Sayres Sohnya Stephanson Anders Aronowitz Stanley Jameson Fredric The s Without Apology Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press p ISBN Jump up Cone p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Remnick David King of the World Muhammed Ali and the Rise of an American Hero New York Vintage Books p ISBN Jump up Ali p Jump up Ali p Jump up Manning Malcolm X Jump up Marsh p Jump up Marsh pp Jump up Marable Malcolm X Ch Jump up Perry pp Jump up to a b Malcolm X Scores U S and Kennedy The New York Times December p Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Perry p Jump up to a b Perry p Jump up to a b Handler M S March Malcolm X Splits with Muhammad The New York Times Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Perry pp Jump up Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary pp Jump up Cone p Jump up Perry p Camera shutters clicked The next day the Chicago Sun Times the New York World Telegram and Sun and other dailies carried a picture of Malcolm and Martin shaking hands Jump up Perry pp Jump up Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks pp Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Perry pp Jump up DeCaro p Jump up Perry pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography pp quote from pp Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given p Jump up Natambu p Jump up Carson p Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up to a b Natambu p Jump up Perry p Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography p Jump up Bethune Lebert Malcolm X in Europe Clarke pp Jump up Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary pp Jump up Perlstein Rick August Republican Convention Revolution from chanel-price chantal-virapin chanta-rose chantelle-stevens charisma the Right Smithsonian Magazine Retrieved June Jump up Bethune Malcolm X in Europe Clarke pp Jump up Malcolm X December Malcolm X Oxford Debate Malcolm X A Research Site Retrieved October Jump up Carson p Jump up Perry p Jump up Natambu p Jump up Kundnani Arun February Black British History Remembering Malcolm's Visit to Smethwick Independent Race and Refugee News Network Institute of Race Relations Retrieved October Jump up Jeffries Stuart October Britain's Most Racist Election The Story of Smethwick Years On The Guardian Retrieved April Jump up Terrill p Jump up Karim p Jump up to a b Perry pp Jump up Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities Malcolm X Robert Penn Warren's Who Speaks for the Negro Archive Retrieved March Jump up Karim pp Jump up Kondo p Jump up Friedly p Jump up Majied Eugene April On My Own Muhammad Speaks Nation of Islam Retrieved October Jump up Carson p Jump up Carson p Jump up Perry pp Jump up Perry pp Jump up to a b c Lomax To Kill a Black Man p Jump up Evanzz p Jump up Evanzz p Jump up Massaquoi Hans J September Mystery of Malcolm X Ebony pp Retrieved April Jump up Ross Janell May Google Commemorates a Very Controversial Civil Rights Figure Yuri Kochiyama The Washington Post Retrieved May Jump up Karim p Jump up to a b Evanzz p Jump up to a b Kihss Peter February Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here The New York Times Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Perry pp Jump up Talese Gay February Police Save Suspect From the Crowd The New York Times Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Kondo p Jump up Buckley Thomas March Malcolm X Jury Finds Guilty The New York Times Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Roth Jack April Get Life Terms in Malcolm Case The New York Times Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Kondo p Jump up Bush Roderick We Are Not What We Seem Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century New York New York University Press p ISBN Jump up Friedly pp Jump up Malcolm X Killer Heads Mosque BBC News March Retrieved October Jump up Jacobson Mark October The Man Who Didn't Shoot Malcolm X New York Retrieved October Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Rickford p Jump up Marable Malcolm X pp Jump up Witnessed The Assassination of Malcolm X CNN February Retrieved June Jump up Telusma Blue February Must Watch TV 'Witnessed The Assassination of Malcolm X' The Grio Retrieved June Jump up Crockett Jr Stephen A February CNN Hopes to Answer What Really Happened the Night Malcolm X Was Killed The Root Retrieved June Jump up Perry p Alex Haley in his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X says p Jump up to a b Rickford p Jump up DeCaro p Jump up to a b Arnold Martin February Harlem Is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites The New York Times Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up DeCaro p Jump up Davis Ossie February Malcolm X's Eulogy The Official Website of Malcolm X Retrieved August Jump up Rickford p Jump up Rickford pp Jump up to a b King Jr Martin Luther February Telegram from Martin Luther King Jr to Betty al Shabazz The Martin Luther King Jr Research and Education Institute Retrieved February Jump up Evanzz p Jump up Clegg p Jump up DeCaro p Jump up Rickford p Jump up Malcolm X The New York Times February Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Death and Transfiguration Time March Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up to a b Rickford p Jump up Evanzz p Jump up Kenworthy E W February Malcolm Called a Martyr Abroad The New York Times Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Evanzz p Jump up Perry p Jump up Marable Rediscovering Malcolm's Life pp Jump up Perry p Jump up Kondo pp Jump up Evanzz p Jump up Rickford pp Jump up Evanzz pp Jump up Friedly p Jump up Kondo pp Jump up Marable Rediscovering Malcolm's Life p Jump up Rickford p Jump up Wartofsky Alona February 'Brother Minister The Martyrdom of Malcolm X' The Washington Post Retrieved October Jump up Farrakhan
Admission on Malcolm X Minutes CBS News May Retrieved October Jump up Farrakhan Responds to Media Attacks The Final Call May Retrieved October Jump up Natambu pp Jump up Release government files on Malcolm X assassination The Boston Globe January Jump up Kelley Robin D G Malcolm X Africana The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience New York Basic Civitas Books p Jump up Terrill pp Jump up X Malcolm God's Judgement of White America www malcolm x org Retrieved April Jump up to a b Lomax When the Word Is Given pp Jump up Terrill p Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given p Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given p Jump up Lomax When the Word Is Given pp Jump up Malcolm X Speeches at Harvard p Jump up DeCaro pp Jump up Lincoln p Jump up Lincoln p Jump up to a b Parks Gordon Malcolm X The Minutes of Our Last Meeting Clarke p Jump up Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks pp Jump up Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary pp Jump up Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks p Jump up Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks p Jump up to a b Cone p Jump up Perry p Jump up Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks pp Jump up Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks pp Jump up Malcolm X Autobiography p Jump up Asante Molefi Kete Greatest African Americans A Biographical Encyclopedia Amhert N Y Prometheus Books p ISBN Jump up Marable Manning Frazier Nishani McMillian John Campbell Freedom on My Mind The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience New York Columbia University Press p ISBN Jump up Salley Columbus The Black A Ranking of the Most Influential African Americans Past and Present New York Citadel Press p ISBN Jump up Cone pp Jump up Nasr Seyyed Hossein The Heart of Islam Enduring Values for Humanity New York HarperCollins p ISBN Jump up Perry p Jump up Turner Richard Brent Islam in the African American Experience In Bobo Jacqueline Hudley Cynthia Michel Claudine The Black Studies Reader New York Routledge p ISBN Jump up Perry p Jump up Sales p Jump up Woodard Komozi A Nation Within a Nation Amiri Baraka LeRoi Jones Black Power Politics Chapel Hill N C University of North Carolina heather-young helen-madigan helen-thomas helga-sven helga-wild hillary-summers holly-hollywood Press p ISBN Jump up Cone p Jump up Haley Epilogue Autobiography p Jump up Perry p Jump up Sales p Jump up Marable Rediscovering Malcolm's Life pp Jump up Sales p Jump up Sales p Jump up Gray Paul June Required Reading Nonfiction Books Time Retrieved March subscription required help Jump up Canby Vincent November 'Malcolm X ' as Complex as Its Subject The New York Times Retrieved June Jump up Anderson Jeffrey M The Best Films of the s Combustible Celluloid Retrieved June Jump up Rich Frank July The Stage Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad The New York Times Retrieved June Jump up Canby Vincent May Ali's Latest Victory Is 'The Greatest' The New York Times Retrieved June subscription required help Jump up O'Connor John J February TV Hour 'King ' Drama of Civil Rights Drive The New York Times Retrieved June subscription required help Jump up Goodman Walter May An Imaginary Meeting of Dr King and Malcolm X The New York Times Retrieved June Jump up Maslin Janet February TV End of 'Roots II' Delineates 's The New York Times Retrieved June subscription required help Jump up Death of a Prophet The New York Times Retrieved October Jump up Henahan Donal September Opera Anthony Davis's 'X The Life and Times of Malcolm X ' The New York Times Retrieved June Jump up King of the World The New York Times Retrieved October Jump up Gallo Phil August Review 'Ali An American Hero' Variety Retrieved June Jump up Mitchell Elvis December Master of the Boast King of the Ring Vision of the Future The New York Times Retrieved June Jump up Lowry Brian January Review 'Betty Coretta' Variety Retrieved June Jump up Scott A O December A Mile March Nearly Years Later The New York Times Retrieved June Jump up McMorris Robert March Empty Lot Holds Dreams for Rowena Moore Omaha World Herald Retrieved October Jump up National Register of Historic Places Nebraska Douglas County National Register of Historic Places Retrieved October Jump up More Nebraska National Register Sites in Douglas County Nebraska State Historical Society Retrieved October Jump up Nebraska Historical Marker Malcolm X A Research Site Retrieved October Jump up Malcolm X Homesite Michigan Historical Markers Retrieved October Jump up Yancey Patty We Hold on to Our Kids We Hold on Tight Tandem Charters in Michigan In Fuller Bruce Inside Charter Schools The Paradox of Radical Decentralization Cambridge Mass Harvard University Press p ISBN Jump up Gay Kathlyn African American Holidays Festivals and Celebrations Detroit Omnigraphics p ISBN Jump up Thaai Walker May Berkeley Honors Controversial Civil Rights Figure San Jose Mercury News Jump up Rickford p Jump up Rickford p Jump up Barron James January 'Not Much of a Block ' but It's Named for a King The New York Times Retrieved October Jump up Scoville Jen December The Big Beat Texas Monthly Archived from the original on December Retrieved October Jump up Vela Susan September Malcolm X Cesar Chavez Get Nods for Lansing Street Plaza Names Lansing State Journal Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Lee Felicia R May Newark Students Both Good and Bad Make Do The New York Times Retrieved October Jump up Hunt Lori Bona February Malcolm X's Widow Sees Signs of Hope Milwaukee Journal Retrieved October Jump up Witkowsky Kathy Spring A Day in the Life National CrossTalk Retrieved October Jump up Belvin Brent October Master's Thesis Malcolm X Liberation University An Experiment in Independent Black Education North Carolina State University Retrieved October Jump up Flynn Pat January Big Crowd Welcomes New Library Warmly The San Diego Union Tribune Jump up Marable Rediscovering Malcolm's Life pp Jump up Malcolm X and Dr Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center Launches Columbia University May Retrieved October Jump up Marable Malcolm X p Jump up Hendrick Bill September A Revelation in Letters Educated Tender Malcolm X The Atlanta Journal Constitution Retrieved October subscription required help Jump up Eakin Emily January Malcolm X Trove to Schomburg Center The New York Times Retrieved October Works cited Ali Muhammad The Soul of a Butterfly Reflections on Life's beatrice-valle becky-savage becky-sunshine belinda-butterfield Journey with Hana Yasmeen Ali New York Simon Schuster ISBN Barboza Steven American Jihad Islam After Malcolm X New York Image Books ISBN Carson Clayborne Malcolm X The FBI File New York Carroll Graf ISBN Clarke John Henrik ed Malcolm X The Man and His Times Trenton N J Africa World Press ISBN Clegg III Claude Andrew An Original Man The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad New York St Martin's Griffin ISBN Cone James H Martin Malcolm America A Dream or a Nightmare Maryknoll N Y Orbis Books ISBN DeCaro Jr Louis A On the Side of My People A Religious Life of Malcolm X New York New York University Press ISBN Dyson Michael Eric Making Malcolm The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN Evanzz Karl The Judas Factor The Plot to Kill Malcolm X New York Thunder's Mouth Press ISBN Friedly Michael Malcolm X The Assassination New York One World ISBN Karim Benjamin with Peter Skutches and David Gallen Remembering Malcolm New York Carroll Graf ISBN Kondo Zak A Conspiracys Unravelling the Assassination of Malcolm X Washington D C Nubia Press OCLC Lincoln C Eric The Black Muslims in America Boston Beacon Press OCLC Lomax Louis E To Kill a Black Man The Shocking Parallel in the Lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr Los Angeles Holloway House ISBN Lomax Louis E When the Word Is Given A Report on Elijah Muhammad Malcolm X and the Black Muslim World Cleveland World Publishing OCLC Malcolm X with the assistance of Alex Haley The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York One World ISBN Citations in this article refer to this edition of the many that have been published Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary Speeches Interviews and a Letter by Malcolm X George Breitman ed New York Pathfinder Press ISBN Malcolm X The End of White World Supremacy Four Speeches by Malcolm X Benjamin Karim ed New York Arcade ISBN Malcolm X The Last Speeches Bruce Perry ed New York Pathfinder Press ISBN Malcolm X Malcolm X Speaks Selected Speeches and Statements George Breitman ed New York Grove Weidenfeld ISBN Malcolm X The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard Archie Epps ed New York Paragon House ISBN Marable Manning Malcolm X A Life of Reinvention New York Viking ISBN Marable Manning Rediscovering Malcolm's Life A Historian's Adventures in Living History In Marable Manning Aidi Hishaam D Black Routes to Islam New York Palgrave Macmillan ISBN Marsh Clifton E The Lost Found Nation of Islam in America Lanham Md Scarecrow Press ISBN Natambu Kofi The Life and Work of Malcolm X Indianapolis Alpha Books ISBN Perry Bruce Malcolm The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America Barrytown N Y Station Hill ISBN Rickford Russell J Betty Shabazz A Remarkable Story of Survival and Faith Before and After Malcolm X Naperville Ill Sourcebooks ISBN Sales Jr William W From Civil Rights to Black Liberation Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro American Unity Boston South End Press ISBN Terrill Robert Malcolm X Inventing Radical Judgment Lansing Mich Michigan State University Press ISBN Wood Joe ed Malcolm X In Our Image New York St Martin's Press ISBN Further reading Abernethy Graeme The Iconography of Malcolm X Lawrence Kan University Press of Kansas ISBN Assensoh A B Alex Assensoh Yvette M Malcolm X and Africa Amherst N Y Cambria Press ISBN Baldwin James One Day When I Was Lost A Scenario Based on Alex Haley's The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York Vintage ISBN Ball Jared A Burroughs Todd Steven eds A Lie of Reinvention Correcting Manning Marable's Malcolm X Baltimore Black Classic Press ISBN Bailey A Peter Witnessing Brother Malcolm X The Master Teacher Plantation Fla Llumina Press ISBN Boyd Herb Daniels Ron Karenga Maulana Madhubuti Haki R eds By Any Means Necessary Malcolm X Real Not Reinvented Chicago Third World Press ISBN Breitman George The Last Year of Malcolm X The Evolution of a Revolutionary New York Pathfinder Press ISBN Breitman George Porter Herman Smith Baxter The Assassination of Malcolm X New York Pathfinder Press ISBN Cleage Albert B Breitman George Myths About Malcolm X Two Views New York Merit OCLC Collins Rodnell P with A Peter Bailey Seventh Child A Family Memoir of Malcolm X Secaucus N J Birch Lane Press ISBN Conyers Jr James L Smallwood Andrew P eds Malcolm X A Historical Reader Durham N C Carolina Academic Press ISBN DeCaro Louis A Malcolm and the Cross The Nation of Islam Malcolm X and Christianity New York New York University Press ISBN Gallen David ed Malcolm X As They Knew Him New York Carroll Graf ISBN Goldman Peter The Death and Life of Malcolm X nd ed Urbana Ill University of Illinois Press ISBN Jamal Hakim A From The Dead Level Malcolm X and Me New York Random House ISBN Jenkins Robert L The Malcolm X Encyclopedia Westport Conn Greenwood Press ISBN Kly Yussuf Naim ed The Black Book The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X El Hajj Malik El Shabazz Atlanta Clarity Press ISBN Leader Edward Roland Understanding Malcolm X The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy New York Vantage Press ISBN Lee Spike with Ralph Wiley By Any Means Necessary The Trials and Tribulations of the Making of Malcolm X New York Hyperion ISBN
Marable Manning Felber Garrett eds The Portable Malcolm X Reader New York Penguin ISBN Roberts Randy Smith Johnny Blood Brothers The Fatal Friendship Between Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X New York Basic Books ISBN Shabazz Ilyasah with Kim McLarin Growing Up X A Memoir by the Daughter of Malcolm X New York One World ISBN Sherwood Marika Malcolm X Visits Abroad Hollywood Calif Tsehai Publishers ISBN Strickland William et al Malcolm X Make It Plain New York Penguin Books ISBN Terrill Robert ed The Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN T'Shaka Oba The Political Legacy of Malcolm X Richmond Calif Pan Afrikan Publications ISBN Waldschmidt Nelson Britta Dreams and Nightmares Martin Luther King Jr Malcolm X and the Struggle for Black Equality Gainesville Fla University Press of Florida ISBN Wolfenstein Eugene Victor The Victims of Democracy Malcolm X and the Black Revolution London Free Association Books ISBN External links Official website of the Estate of Malcolm X The Malcolm desiree-lane desiree-west deva-station devin-devasquez devinn-lane devon-shire dia X Project at Columbia University Malcolm website on the life and legacy of Malcolm X Malcolm Little Malcolm X file at Federal Bureau of Investigation Malcolm X at the Internet Movie Database Malcolm X Character at the Internet Movie Database show v t e Malcolm X Malcolm X NYWTS a jpg show v t e Pan Africanism show v t e African American Civil Rights Movement Portals Access related topics AmericaAfrica svgAfrican American portal P vip svgBiography portal HumanRightsLogo svgHuman rights portal Allah green svgIslam portal A coloured voting box svgPolitics portal Find out more on Wikipedia's Sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF LCCN n ISNI GND SELIBR SUDOC X BNF cb g data MusicBrainz ea f c dcb e f f adec a NLA NDL NKC jo BNE XX Categories Malcolm X births deaths th century African American activists th century American writers African American former Christians African American life in Omaha Nebraska African American Muslims African American non fiction writers Activists for African American civil rights American people convicted of burglary American memoirists American people of Grenadian descent American people of Scottish descent American Sunni Muslims Assassinated American civil rights activists Assassinated religious leaders Burials at Ferncliff Cemetery COINTELPRO targets Converts to Islam from Protestantism Deaths by firearm in New York Deaths onstage Former Nation of Islam members Murdered African American people Muslim activists Muslim writers American pan Africanists Georgia Listeni 'd rd JOR juh is a state in the southeastern United States It was established in the last of the original Thirteen Colonies Named after King George II of Great Britain Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution on January It declared its secession from the Union on January and was one of the original seven Confederate states It was the last state to be restored to the Union on July Georgia is the th largest and the th most populous of the United States From to of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's fastest growing second only to Texas Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South Atlanta is the state's capital its most populous city and has been named a global city Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina to the west by Alabama and to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina The state's northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains part of the Appalachian Mountains system The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at feet m above sea level the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area Contents hide History Geography Boundaries Geology and terrain Flora Fauna Climate Demographics Race and age Languages Major cities Religion Government State government Local government Elections Politics Economy Agriculture Mining Industry Logistics Military Energy use and production State taxes Film Tourism Cultural Fine and performing arts Literature Television Music Film Sports Parks and recreational activities Education Media Infrastructure Transportation Health care Cities Notable people State symbols See also References Bibliography External links History edit Main article History of Georgia U S state Before settlement by Europeans Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by and named for King George II The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement known as the Oglethorpe Plan which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery In the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear In after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony the Trustees turned over control to the crown Georgia became a crown colony with a governor appointed by the king The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain on June The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the Declaration of Independence The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February Georgia was the th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July and was the th state to ratify the current Constitution on January In gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega which continued its operation until The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation In President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian copper-penny coreena corey-everson corinne-lemoine Removal Act into law sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present day Oklahoma including all of Georgia's tribes Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v Georgia that ruled U S states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling In his successor Martin Van Buren dispatched federal troops to gather the Cherokee and deport them west of the Mississippi This forced relocation known as the Trail of Tears led to the death of over Cherokees In early Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a major theater of the Civil War Major battles took place at Chickamauga Kennesaw Mountain and Atlanta In December a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea Georgian soldiers died in service roughly of every who served In following the Reconstruction Era Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature they passed a poll tax in which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites preventing them from registering In the state established a white primary with the only competitive contests within the Democratic Party it was another way to exclude blacks from politics They constituted of the state's population in but the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American dropped thereafter to primarily due to leaving the state during the Great Migration This disfranchisement persisted through the mid s until federal legislation with the Voting Rights Act of Geography edit Main article Geography of Georgia U S state Road to Brasstown Bald Jekyll Island Okefenokee Swamp Georgia Boundaries edit Beginning from the Atlantic Ocean the state's eastern border with South Carolina runs up the Savannah River northwest to its origin at the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers It then continues up the Tugaloo originally Tugalo and into the Chattooga River its most significant tributary These bounds were decided in the Treaty of Beaufort and tested in the U S Supreme Court in the two Georgia v South Carolina cases in and The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun County at latitude °N though from this point it diverges slightly south due to inaccuracies in the original survey This northern border was originally the Georgia and North Carolina border all the way to the Mississippi River until Tennessee was divided from North Carolina and the Yazoo companies induced the legislature of Georgia to pass an act approved by the governor in to sell the greater part of Georgia's territory presently comprising Alabama and Mississippi The state's western border runs in a straight line south southeastward from a point southwest of Chattanooga to meet the Chattahoochee River near West Point It continues downriver to the point where it joins the Flint River the confluence of the two forming Florida's Apalachicola River the southern border goes almost due east and very slightly south in a straight line to the St Mary's River which then forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean The water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the rivers Since then several have been inundated by lakes created by dams including the Apalachicola Chattahoochee Flint point now under Lake Seminole Georgia state legislators have claimed that in an survey the state's border with Tennessee was erroneously placed one mile km farther south than intended and they proposed a correction in The state was then in the midst of a significant drought and the new border would allow Georgia access to water from the Tennessee River Geology and terrain edit Map of elevations in Georgia Main article Geology of Georgia U S state Each region has its own distinctive characteristics For instance the Ridge and Valley which lies in the northwest corner of the state includes limestone sandstone shale and other sedimentary rocks which have
yielded construction grade limestone barite ocher and small amounts of coal Flora edit The state of Georgia has approximately tree species and protected plants Georgia's native trees include red cedar a variety of pines oaks hollies cypress sweetgum scaly bark and white hickories and sabal palmetto East Georgia is in the subtropical coniferous forest biome and conifer species as other broadleaf evergreen flora make up the majority of the southern and coastal regions Yellow jasmine and mountain laurel make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state Fauna edit White tailed Virginia deer are in nearly all counties The northern mockingbird and brown thrasher are among the bird species that live in the state Reptiles and amphibians include the eastern diamondback copperhead and cottonmouth salamanders frogs alligators and toads There are about species of reptile and amphibians known to live in Georgia The most popular freshwater game fish are trout bream bass and catfish all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries for restocking Popular saltwater game fish include red drum spotted seatrout flounder and tarpon Porpoises whales shrimp oysters and blue crabs are found inshore and offshore of the Georgia coast Climate edit Main article Climate of Georgia U S state Köppen climate classification types of Georgia Image of March Storm of the Century covering the length of the east coast The outline of Georgia is discernible in the center of the image The majority of the state is primarily a humid subtropical climate Hot and humid summers are typical except at the highest elevations The entire state including the North Georgia mountains receives moderate to heavy precipitation which varies from inches mm in central Georgia to approximately inches mm around the northeast part of the state The degree to which the weather of a certain region of Georgia is subtropical depends on the latitude its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico and the elevation The latter factor is felt chiefly in the mountainous areas of the northern part of the state which are farther away from the ocean and can be feet m above sea level The USDA Plant hardiness zones for Georgia range from zone b no colder than °F °C in the Blue Ridge Mountains to zone b no colder than °F °C along the Atlantic coast and Florida border The highest temperature ever recorded is °F °C in Louisville on July while the lowest is °F °C in northern Floyd County on January Georgia is one of the leading states in frequency of tornadoes though they are rarely stronger than F Although tornadoes striking the city are very rare a F nonviolent tornado hit downtown Atlanta on March causing moderate to severe damage to various buildings With a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean Georgia is also vulnerable to hurricanes although direct hurricane strikes were rare during the th century Georgia often is affected by hurricanes that strike the Florida panhandle weaken over land and bring strong tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the interior as well as hurricanes that come close to miss-pomodoro missy missy-graham missy-stone missy-vega misti-jane mistress-candice misty-anderson the Georgia coastline brushing the coast on their way north Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major Georgia cities City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Athens Atlanta Augusta Columbus Macon Savannah Temperatures are given in °F °C format with highs on top of lows Demographics edit Main article Demographics of Georgia U S state Historical population Census Pop ± Est Estimate Population density of Georgia The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Georgia was on July a increase since the United States Census In Georgia had an estimated population of which was an increase of from the previous year and an increase of since This includes a natural increase since the last census of people that is births minus deaths and an increase from net migration of people into the state Immigration resulted in a net increase of people and migration within the country produced a net increase of people As of the state has the sixth highest number of illegal immigrants in the country There were in the count more than doubled from January to January at There were veterans in Race and age edit According to the United States Census Georgia had a population of In terms of race and ethnicity the state was White Non Hispanic White Alone Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander from Some Other Race and from Two or More Races Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up of the population Georgia Racial Breakdown of Population hide Racial composition White Black Asian Native Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander Other race Two or more races As of of Georgia's population younger than age were minorities meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non Hispanic white compared to other states like California with New York with and Texas with The largest European ancestry groups are English Irish German In the census Georgians claimed English ancestry out of a total state population of making them of the state and the largest ethnic group at the time Today many of these same people claiming that they are of American ancestry are actually of English descent and some are of Scots Irish descent however their families have lived in the state for so long in many cases since the colonial period that they choose to identify simply as having American ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry though they are of predominately English ancestry As of of Georgia's population was reported as under years of age under and were or older Also as of females made up approximately of the population and African Americans made up approximately Historically about half of Georgia's population was composed of African Americans who before the Civil War were almost exclusively enslaved The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from reduced the African American population Georgia had the second fastest growing Asian population growth in the U S from to more than doubling in size during the ten year period In addition according to census estimates Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population that is African American after Mississippi and Louisiana and third in numerical Black population after New York and Florida Georgia was the state with the largest numerical increase in the black population from to with Georgia is the state with the third lowest percentage of older people or older at percent as of The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scottish American English American and Scotch Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont and coastal settlement by some English Americans and African Americans have strongly influenced the state's culture in food language and music The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the th century repeatedly from rice growing regions of West Africa led to the development of Gullah Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas In the creolization of Southern culture their foodways became an integral part of all Southern cooking in the Low Country Languages edit Top Non English Languages Spoken in Georgia Language Percentage of population as of Spanish Korean Vietnamese French Chinese including Mandarin German Hindi Niger Congo languages of West Africa Ibo Kru and Yoruba Gujarati Portuguese and French Creole As of of Georgia residents age and older spoke English at home as a primary language while spoke Spanish Korean Vietnamese French Chinese which includes Mandarin and German which was spoken as a main language by of the population over the age of five In total of Georgia's population age and older spoke a mother language other than English Major cities edit v t e Largest cities or towns in Georgia U S state http www census gov popest data cities totals SUB EST html Rank Name County Pop Atlanta Atlanta Columbus Columbus Atlanta Fulton Augusta Augusta Macon Macon Columbus Muscogee Augusta Richmond Macon Bibb Savannah Chatham Athens Clarke Sandy Springs Fulton Roswell Fulton Johns Creek Fulton Albany Dougherty Populations indicated above are the latest estimates from the US Census Bureau In voters in Macon and Bibb County approved the consolidation of the city of Macon and unincorporated Bibb County and they officially merged on January Macon joined Columbus Augusta and Athens as consolidated cities in Georgia The U S Census Bureau lists fourteen metropolitan areas in Georgia The largest Atlanta is the ninth most populous metro area in the United States Religion edit St Mark's United Methodist Church in Atlanta The composition of religious affiliation in Georgia is Protestant Catholic Mormon Jewish Muslim Buddhist and Hindu Atheists deists agnostics and other unaffiliated people make up of the population The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents in were the Southern Baptist Convention with the United Methodist Church with and the Roman Catholic Church with Non denominational Evangelical Protestant had members the Church of God Cleveland Tennessee has members and the National Baptist Convention USA Inc has members The Presbyterian Church USA is the largest Presbyterian body in the state with congregations and members The other large body Presbyterian Church in America had at its founding date congregations and members in it counted congregations and members The Roman Catholic Church is noteworthy in Georgia's urban areas and includes the Archdiocese of Atlanta and the Diocese of Savannah Georgia is home to the largest Hindu temple in the United States the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Atlanta Georgia is home to several historical synagogues including The Temple Atlanta Congregation Beth Jacob Atlanta and Congregation Mickve Israel Savannah Chabad and the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute are also active in the state Government vanessa-del-rio vanessa-michaels vanessa-ozdanic vanilla-deville edit Main article Government of Georgia U S state State government edit See also List of governors of Georgia and Georgia elected officials The Georgia State Capitol in Atlanta with the distinctive gold dome City Hall in Savannah As with all other US states and the federal government Georgia's government is based on the separation of legislative executive and judicial power Executive authority in the state rests with the governor currently Nathan Deal Republican Both the Governor of Georgia and lieutenant governor are elected on separate ballots to four year terms of office Unlike the federal government but like many other U S States most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather than appointed by the governor Legislative authority resides in the General Assembly composed of the Senate and House of Representatives The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate while members of the House of Representatives select their own Speaker The Georgia
Constitution mandates a maximum of senators elected from single member districts and a minimum of representatives apportioned among representative districts which sometimes results in more than one representative per district there are currently senators and representatives The term of office for senators and representatives is two years The laws enacted by the General Assembly are codified in the Official Code of Georgia Annotated State judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court and Court of Appeals which have statewide authority In addition there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction including Superior Courts State Courts Juvenile Courts Magistrate Courts and Probate Courts Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in non partisan elections to six year terms Judges for the smaller courts are elected to four year terms by the state's citizens who live within that court's jurisdiction Local government edit Further information List of counties in Georgia Georgia consists of counties second only to Texas with Georgia had counties until the end of when Milton and Campbell were merged into the existing Fulton Some counties have been named for prominent figures in both American and Georgian history and many bear names with Native American origin Counties in Georgia have their own elected legislative branch usually called the Board of Commissioners which usually also has executive authority in the county Several counties have a sole Commissioner form of government with legislative and executive authority vested in a single person Georgia is the only state with Sole Commissioner counties Georgia's Constitution provides all counties and cities with home rule authority The county commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within their county as a municipality would Georgia recognizes all local units of government as cities so every incorporated town is legally a city Georgia does not provide for townships or independent cities though there have been bills proposed in the Legislature to provide for townships it does allow consolidated city county governments by local referendum All of Georgia's second tier cities except Savannah have now formed consolidated city county governments by referendum Columbus in Athens Augusta and Macon Augusta and Athens have excluded one or more small incorporated towns within their consolidated boundaries while Macon has excluded a small unincorporated area Columbus eventually absorbed all smaller incorporated entities within its consolidated boundaries The small town of Cusseta adopted a consolidated city county government in There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia though the Atlanta Regional Commission ARC and Georgia Regional Transportation Authority do provide some services and the ARC must approve all major land development projects in the Atlanta metropolitan area Elections edit Main article Elections in Georgia U S state See also United States presidential election in Georgia and Political party strength in Georgia U S state Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic State won by George Wallace of the American Independent Party at or votes Treemap of the popular vote by county presidential election Until Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record of single party dominance by the Democratic Party of any state in the Union This record was established largely due to the disenfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites by the state in its constitution and laws in the early th century Some elements such as requiring payment of poll taxes and passing literacy tests prevented blacks from registering to vote their exclusion from the political system lasted into the s and reduced the Republican Party to a non competitive status in the early th century White Democrats regained power after Reconstruction due in part to the efforts of some using intimidation and violence but this method came into disrepute In shortly before Georgia adopted a disfranchising constitutional

amendment in blacks comprised of the state's population The whites dealt with this problem of potential political power by the amendment which in practice disenfranchised blacks and poor whites nearly half of the state population It required that any male at least years of age wanting to register to vote must also a be of good character and able to pass a test on citizenship b be able to read and write provisions of the U S and Georgia constitutions or c own at least acres of land or in property Any Georgian who had fought in any war from the American Revolution through the Spanish American War was exempted from these additional qualifications More importantly any Georgian descended from a veteran of any of these wars also was exempted Because by many white Georgia males were grandsons of veterans and or owned the required property the exemption and the property requirement basically allowed only well to do whites to vote The qualifications of good character

citizenship knowledge and literacy all determined subjectively by white registrars and property ownership were used to disqualify most blacks and poor whites preventing them from registering to vote The voter rolls dropped dramatically In the early th century Progressives promoted electoral reform and reducing the power of ward bosses to clean up politics Their additional rules such as the eight box law continued to effectively close out people who were illiterate White one party rule was solidified For more than years from to Georgians nominated and elected only white Democratic governors and white Democrats held the majority of seats in the General Assembly Most of the Democrats elected throughout these years were Southern Democrats who were fiscally and socially conservative by national standards This voting pattern continued after the segregationist period Legal segregation was ended by passage of federal legislation in the s According to the census the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American was hundreds of thousands of blacks had left the state in the Great Migration to the North and Midwest New white residents arrived through migration and immigration Following support from the national Democratic Party for the civil rights movement and especially civil rights legislation of and most African American voters as well as other minority voters have largely supported the Democratic Party in Georgia In the decades since the late th century the conservative white majority voters have increasingly supported Republicans for national and state offices In incumbent moderate Democratic Governor Roy Barnes was defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue a state legislator and former Democrat While Democrats retained control of the State House they lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats switched parties They lost the House in the election Republicans then controlled all three partisan elements of the state government Even before the state had become increasingly supportive of Republicans in Presidential elections It has supported a Democrat for president only three times since In and native son Jimmy Carter carried the state in the former Arkansas governor Bill Clinton narrowly won the state Generally Republicans are strongest in the predominantly white suburban especially the Atlanta suburbs and rural portions of the state Many of these areas were represented by conservative Democrats in the state legislature well into the st century One of the most conservative of these was U S Congressman Larry McDonald former head of the John Birch Society who died when the Soviet Union shot down KAL near Sakhalin Island Democratic candidates have tended to win a higher percentage of the vote in the areas where black voters are most numerous as well as in the cities among liberal urban populations especially Atlanta and Athens and the rural Black Belt region that passes through the central and southwestern portion of the state The ascendancy of the Republican Party in Georgia and in the South in general resulted in Georgia U S House of Representatives member Newt Gingrich being elected as Speaker of the House following the election of a Republican majority in the House in Gingrich served as Speaker until when he resigned in the aftermath of the loss of House seats held by members of the GOP Gingrich mounted an unsuccessful bid for President in the election but withdrew after winning only the South Carolina and Georgia primaries In recent events Democrat Jim Martin ran against incumbent Republican Senator Saxby Chambliss Chambliss failed to acquire the necessary percent of votes a Libertarian Party candidate receiving the remainder of votes In the runoff election held on December Chambliss became the second Georgia Republican to be reelected to the U S Senate As of the reapportionment the state has seats in the U S House of Representatives These are held by Republicans and Democrats The Georgia House of Representatives has Democrats Republicans and Independent while the Georgia Senate has Democrats and Republicans Politics edit Main article jenna-jane jenna-presley jenna-wells jennifer-haussmann jennifer-janes jennifer-jordan jennifer-morante Politics of Georgia U S state During the s and s Georgia made significant changes in civil rights and governance As in many other states its legislature had not reapportioned congressional districts according to population from to after the census Problems of malapportionment in the state legislature where rural districts had outsize power in relation to urban districts such as Atlanta's were corrected after the US Supreme Court ruling in Wesberry v Sanders The court ruled that congressional districts had to be reapportioned to have essentially equal populations A related case Reynolds v Sims required state legislatures to end their use of geographical districts or counties in favor of one man one vote that is districts based upon approximately equal populations to be reviewed and changed as necessary after each census These changes resulted in residents of Atlanta and other urban areas gaining political power in Georgia in proportion to their populations From the mid s the voting electorate increased after African Americans' rights to vote were enforced under civil rights law Economic growth through this period was dominated by Atlanta and its region It was a bedrock of the emerging New South From the late th century Atlanta attracted headquarters and relocated workers of national companies becoming more diverse liberal and cosmopolitan than many areas of the state In the st century many conservative Democrats including former U S Senator and governor Zell Miller decided to support Republicans The state's socially conservative bent results in wide support for such measures as restrictions on abortion In a state constitutional amendment banning same sex marriages was approved by of voters However after the United States Supreme Court issued its ruling in Obergefell v Hodges all Georgia counties came into full compliance recognizing the rights of same sex couples to marry in the State Economy edit See also Georgia U S state locations by per capita income Georgia's total gross state product was billion Its per capita personal income for put it th in the nation at For years Georgia as a state has had the highest credit rating by Standard and Poor's AAA and is one of only states with a AAA rating If Georgia were a stand alone country it would be the th largest economy in the world A heat map of Georgia's counties depicting the median income as of There are Fortune companies and Fortune companies with headquarters in Georgia including such names as Home Depot UPS Coca Cola Delta Air Lines Aflac Southern Company Anthem Inc one of the largest health benefits companies Honeywell and SunTrust Banks Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta International Airport the world's busiest airport as measured by both passenger traffic and aircraft traffic is located in Georgia Georgia has over internationally headquartered facilities representing countries employing more than Georgians with an estimated capital investment of billion Atlanta has a large effect on the state of Georgia the Southeastern United States and beyond Atlanta has been the site of growth in real estate service logistics and the communications and film industries while tourism is important to the economy Atlanta is a global city also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center as a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system For the past four years Georgia has been ranked the top state in the nation to do business Agriculture edit Savannah's River Street is a popular tourist destination Widespread farms produce peanuts corn and soybeans across middle and south Georgia The state is the number one producer of pecans in the world with the region around Albany in southwest Georgia being the center of Georgia's pecan production Gainesville in northeast Georgia touts itself as the Poultry Capital of the World Georgia is in the top five blueberry producers in the United States A Georgia U S quarter Georgia's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs pecans peaches cotton peanuts rye cattle hogs dairy products turfgrass timber particularly pine trees tobacco and bree-anthony breezy-lane brenda-basse briana-blair vegetables Mining edit Major products in the mineral industry include a variety of clays stones sands and the clay palygorskite known as attapulgite Industry edit Industry in Georgia is diverse While many textile jobs moved overseas there is still a textile industry located around the cities of Rome Columbus Augusta Macon and along the I corridor between Atlanta and Chattanooga Tennessee Historically it started along the fall line in the Piedmont where factories were powered by waterfalls and rivers It includes the towns of Cartersville Calhoun Ringgold and Dalton In November Kia started production in Georgia at the first U S Kia Motors plant Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia in West Point Industrial products include textiles and apparel transportation equipment food processing paper products chemicals and products and electric equipment Logistics edit The Georgia Ports Authority owns and operates four ports in the state Port of Savannah Port of Brunswick Port Bainbridge and Port Columbus The Port of Savannah is the fourth largest seaport in the United States importing and exporting a total of million TEUs per year Several major companies including Target IKEA and Heineken operate distribution centers in close proximity to the Port of Savannah Military edit Southern Congressmen have attracted major investment by the US military in the state The several US military installations include Fort Stewart Hunter Army Airfield Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay Fort Benning Moody Air Force Base Robins Air Force Base Fort Gordon Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany Dobbins Air Reserve Base Coast Guard Air Station Savannah and Coast Guard Station Brunswick These installations command numerous jobs and business for related contractors Energy use and production edit Georgia's electricity generation and consumption are among the highest in the United States with natural gas being the primary electrical generation fuel followed by coal The state also has two nuclear power facilities Plant
Hatch and Plant Vogtle which contribute almost one fourth of Georgia's electricity generation and an additional two nuclear power plants are under construction at Plant Vogtle In the generation mix was gas coal nuclear hydro and other renewable sources The leading area of energy consumption is the industrial sector because Georgia is a leader in the energy intensive wood and paper products industry Solar generated energy is becoming more in use with solar energy generators currently installed ranking Georgia th in the country in installed solar capacity In million was invested in Georgia to install solar for home business and utility use representing a increase over the previous year State taxes edit Georgia has a progressive income tax structure with six brackets of state income tax rates that range from to In Georgians paid of their income in state and local taxes compared to the US average of of income This ranks Georgia th among the states for total state and local tax burden The state sales tax in Georgia is with additional percentages added victoria-luna victoria-paris victoria-slick victoria-zdrok through local options e g Special purpose local option sales tax or SPLOST but there is no sales tax on prescription drugs certain medical devices or food items for home consumption The state legislature may allow municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes such as the SPLOST tax and the sales tax for MARTA serviced counties Excise taxes are levied on alcohol tobacco and motor fuel Owners of real property in Georgia pay property tax to their county All taxes are collected by the Georgia Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according to any agreements that each county has with its cities Film edit Main article Film industry in Georgia U S state The Georgia Film Music and Digital Entertainment Office promotes filming in the state Since seven hundred film and television projects have been filmed on location in Georgia In Georgia's film and television industry created a billion economic impact on the state's economy Tourism edit In the Atlanta area World of Coke Georgia Aquarium Zoo Atlanta and Stone Mountain are important tourist attractions Stone Mountain is Georgia's most popular attraction receiving over four million tourists per year The Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta was the largest aquarium in the world in according to Guinness World Records Callaway Gardens in western Georgia is a family resort The area is also popular with golfers The Savannah Historic District attracts over eleven million tourists each year The Golden Isles are a string of barrier islands off the Atlantic coast of Georgia near Brunswick that include beaches golf courses and the Cumberland Island National Seashore Several sites honor the lives and careers of noted American leaders the Little White House in Warm Springs which served as the summer residence of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt while he was being treated for polio President Jimmy Carter's hometown of Plains and the Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta the Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site in Atlanta which is the final resting place of Martin Luther King Jr and Coretta Scott King and Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church where Dr King preached Cultural edit Main article Culture of Georgia U S state The Fox Theatre is a performing arts venue located in Midtown Atlanta and is the centerpiece of the Fox Theatre Historic District Fine and performing arts edit Georgia's major fine art museums include the High Museum of Art and the Michael C Carlos Museum both in Atlanta the Georgia Museum of Art on the campus of the University of Georgia in Athens Telfair Museum of Art and the SCAD Museum of Art in Savannah and the Morris Museum of Art in Augusta The state theatre of Georgia is the Springer Opera House located in Columbus The Atlanta Opera brings opera to Georgia stages The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra is the most widely recognized orchestra and largest arts organization in the southeastern United States There are a number of performing arts venues in the state among the largest are the Fox Theatre and the Alliance Theatre at the Woodruff Arts Center both on Peachtree Street in Midtown Atlanta as well as the Cobb Energy Performing Arts Centre located in Northwest Atlanta Literature edit Authors have grappled with Georgia's complex history Popular novels related to this include Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind Olive Ann Burns' Cold Sassy Tree and Alice Walker's The Color Purple A number of noted authors poets and playwrights have lived in Georgia such as James Dickey Flannery O'Connor Sidney Lanier Frank Yerby and Lewis Grizzard Television edit Well known television shows set in Atlanta include from Tyler Perry Studios House of Payne and Tyler Perry's Meet the Browns The Real Housewives of Atlanta the CBS sitcom Designing Women Matlock the popular AMC series The Walking Dead Lifetime Drop Dead Diva Rectify and numerous HGTV original productions The Dukes of Hazzard a s TV show that spun off several films was set in the fictional Hazzard County Georgia The show was filmed at Warner Bros back lot in Burbank California and on location in Conyers and Covington Georgia as well as some locations in Atlanta Also filmed in Georgia is The Vampire Diaries using Covington as the setting for the fictional Mystic Falls Music edit Main article Music of Georgia U S state See also List of hip hop musicians from Atlanta A number of notable musicians in various genres of popular music are from Georgia Among them are Ray Charles whose many hits include Georgia on My Mind now the official state song and Gladys Knight known for her Georgia themed song Midnight Train to Georgia Rock groups from Georgia include the Atlanta Rhythm Section The Black Crowes and The Allman Brothers The university city of Athens sparked an influential rock music scene in the s and s Among the groups achieving their initial prominence in that city were R E M Widespread Panic and the B 's Since the s various hip hop and R B musicians have included top selling artists such as Outkast Usher Ludacris TLC B o B and Ciara Atlanta is mentioned in a number of these artists' tracks such as Usher's A Town Down reference in his bunnie-blake bunny-bleu bunny-hatton busty-belle cali-caramel hit Yeah which also features Atlanta artists Lil Jon and Ludacris Ludacris' Welcome to Atlanta Outkast's album ATLiens and B o B 's multiple references to Decatur Georgia as in his hit song Strange Clouds Film edit Films set in Georgia include two pictures both set in Atlanta that were awarded the Oscar for Best Picture Gone with the Wind and Driving Miss Daisy Other films set in Georgia include Deliverance which was based on the novel of the same name by James Dickey and Parental Guidance Sports edit Main article Sports in Georgia U S state Kickoff at Sanford Stadium of the Georgia South Carolina college football game on September Sports in Georgia include professional teams in nearly all major sports Olympic Games contenders and medalists collegiate teams in major and small school conferences and associations and active amateur teams and individual sports The state of Georgia has a team in three major professional leagues Atlanta Braves of Major League Baseball Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association and in is scheduled to land a fourth with an expansion franchise in Major League Soccer The Georgia Bulldogs Southeastern Conference Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets Atlantic Coast Conference Georgia State Panthers and Georgia Southern Eagles Sun Belt Conference are Georgia's NCAA Division I FBS football teams having won multiple national championships between them The Summer Olympics took place in Atlanta The stadium that was built to host various Olympic events was converted to Turner Field the home of the Atlanta Braves The Masters golf tournament the first of the PGA tour's four majors is held annually the second weekend of April at the Augusta National Golf Club The Atlanta Motor Speedway hosts the Dixie NASCAR Cup Series stock car race and Road Atlanta the Petit Le Mans endurance sports car race Atlanta's Georgia Dome hosted Super Bowl XXVIII in and Super Bowl XXXIV in The Georgia Dome hosted the NCAA Final Four Men's Basketball National Championship in and It hosted WWE's WrestleMania XXVII in an event which set an attendance record of The dome is also the venue of the annual Chick fil A Bowl post season college football games Since the FIRST World Championships have been held there Professional baseball's Ty Cobb was the first player inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame He was from Narrows and was nicknamed The Georgia Peach Parks and recreational activities edit Main article Protected areas of Georgia U S state There are parks in Georgia of which are state parks and that are historic sites and numerous state wildlife preserves under the supervision of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources Other historic sites and parks are supervised by the National Park Service and include the Andersonville National Historic Site in Andersonville Appalachian National Scenic Trail Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area near Atlanta Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park at Fort Oglethorpe Cumberland Island National Seashore near St Marys Fort Frederica National Monument on St Simons Island Fort Pulaski National Monument in Savannah Jimmy Carter National Historic Site near Plains Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park near Kennesaw Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site in Atlanta Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon Trail of Tears National Historic Trail and the Okefenokee Swamp in Waycross Georgia Outdoor recreational activities include hiking along the Appalachian Trail Civil War Heritage Trails rock climbing and whitewater paddling Other outdoor activities include hunting and fishing Education edit Main article Education in Georgia U S state Georgia Tech's Tech Tower Georgia county and city public school systems are administered by school boards with members elected at the local level As of all but of boards are elected from single member districts Residents and activist groups in Fayette County Georgia sued the board of commissioners and school board for maintaining an election system based on at large voting which tended to increase the power of the majority and effectively prevented minority participation on elected local boards for nearly years A change to single member districts has resulted in the African American minority being able to elect representatives of its choice Georgia high schools grades nine through twelve are required to administer a standardized multiple choice End of Course Test or EOCT in each of eight core subjects including algebra geometry U S history economics biology physical science Ninth Grade Literature and composition and American literature The official purpose of the tests is to assess specific content knowledge and skills Although a minimum test score is not required for the student to receive credit in the course completion of the test is mandatory The EOCT score accounts for of a student's grade in the course The Georgia Milestone is taken by public school students in the state Georgia has almost public
colleges universities and technical colleges in addition to over private institutes of higher learning Among Georgia's public universities is the flagship research university University of Georgia the oldest public university in the United States The University System of Georgia is the presiding body over public education in the state The System includes institutions of higher learning The System is governed by the Georgia Board of Regents The HOPE Scholarship funded by the state lottery is available to all Georgia residents who have graduated from high school or earned a General Educational Development certificate The student must maintain a or higher grade point average and attend a public college or university in the state Media edit See also List of newspapers in Georgia U S state The CNN Center in Atlanta The Atlanta metropolitan area is the ninth largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research The state's other top markets are Savannah th largest Augusta th largest and Columbus th largest There are television broadcast stations in Georgia including TBS TNT TCM Cartoon Network CNN and Headline News all founded by notable Georgia resident Ted Turner The Weather Channel also has its headquarters in Atlanta By far the largest daily newspaper in Georgia is the Atlanta Journal Constitution with a daily readership of and a Sunday readership of Other large dailies include The Augusta Chronicle the Columbus Ledger Enquirer The Telegraph formerly The Macon Telegraph and the Savannah Morning News WSB AM in Atlanta was the first licensed radio station in the southeastern United States signing on in Georgia Public Radio has been in service since and with the exception of Atlanta it broadcasts daily on several FM and one AM stations across the state Georgia Public Radio reaches nearly all of Georgia with the exception of the Atlanta area which is served by WABE WSB TV in Atlanta is the state's oldest television station having begun operations in WSB was only the second such operation founded in the Southern U S trailing only WTVR in Richmond Virginia Infrastructure edit Transportation edit Main article Transportation in Georgia U S state The Port of Brunswick and the Sidney Lanier Bridge Transportation in Georgia is overseen by the Georgia Department of Transportation a part of the executive branch of the state government Georgia's major Interstate Highways are I I I and I On March the Georgia House of Representatives passed a resolution naming the portion of Interstate Highway which runs from the Chattahoochee River northward to the Tennessee state line the Larry McDonald Memorial Highway Larry McDonald a Democratic member of the House of Representatives had been on Korean Air Lines Flight when it was shot down by the Soviets on September MARTA commuter train Georgia's primary commercial airport is Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta International Airport ATL and is the world's busiest passenger airport In addition to Hartsfield Jackson there are eight other airports serving major commercial traffic in Georgia Savannah natalli-diangelo natascha-throat natasha-skyler naudia-nyce nessa-devil nessy-grant nesty nicki-hunter Hilton Head International Airport is the second busiest airport in the state as measured by passengers served and is the only additional international airport Other commercial airports ranked in order of passengers served are located in Augusta Columbus Albany Macon Brunswick Valdosta and Athens The Georgia Ports Authority manages two deepwater seaports at Savannah and Brunswick and two river ports at Bainbridge and Columbus The Port of Savannah is a major U S seaport on the Atlantic coast The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority MARTA is the principal rapid transit system in the Atlanta metropolitan area Formed in as strictly a bus system MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting of miles km of rail track with train stations MARTA operates almost exclusively in Fulton and DeKalb counties with bus service to two destinations in Cobb county and the Cumberland Transfer Center next to the Cumberland Mall and a single rail station in Clayton County at Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta
International Airport MARTA also operates a separate paratransit service for disabled customers As of the average total daily ridership for the system bus and rail was passengers Health care edit Medical Center of Central Georgia in Macon Georgia's nd largest hospital See also List of hospitals in Georgia U S state The state has general hospitals over doctors and almost dentists The state is ranked forty first in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise Cities edit See also Georgia census statistical areas Downtown Atlanta Atlanta located in north central Georgia at the Eastern Continental Divide has been Georgia's capital city since It is the most populous city in Georgia with just over residents in The Atlanta metropolitan area is the cultural and economic center of the Southeast and its population in was or of Georgia's total Atlanta is the nation's ninth largest metropolitan area The state has fourteen other cities with populations above based on census estimates In descending order of size they are Columbus Augusta Macon Savannah Athens Sandy Springs Roswell Albany Johns Creek Warner Robins Alpharetta Marietta Valdosta and Smyrna Along with the rest of the Southeast Georgia's population continues to grow rapidly with primary gains concentrated in urban areas The population of the Atlanta metropolitan area added million people percent between and and Atlanta rose in rank from the eleventh largest metropolitan area in the United States to the ninth largest Notable people edit Main article List of people from Georgia U S state Jimmy Carter from Plains Georgia was President of the United States from to Martin Luther King Jr was born in Atlanta Georgia U S state in He was a civil rights movement leader fighting for rights for African Americans and received the Nobel Peace Prize in State symbols edit A brown thrasher Georgia's state bird in High Island Texas Rosa laevigata Cherokee rose the state flower of Georgia Amphibian American green tree frog Bird brown thrasher Butterfly eastern tiger swallowtail Dance square dance Fish largemouth bass Flower Cherokee rose Food grits peach Vidalia onion Fossil shark tooth Gem quartz Insect European honey bee Mammal White tailed deer Marine mammal right whale Mineral staurolite Nicknames Peach State Empire State of the South Reptile gopher tortoise Rock granite Shell knobbed whelk Soil Tifton Song Georgia on My Mind Tree live oak See also edit Georgia USA portal Geologic map of Georgia Get Outdoors Georgia Index of Georgia U S state related articles Outline of Georgia U S state organized list of topics about Georgia LGBT rights in Georgia U S state Georgia U S state Wikipedia book References edit Jump up to a b c Table Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States Regions States and Puerto Rico April to July CSV U S Census Bureau December Retrieved December Jump up Median Annual Household Income The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation Retrieved December Jump up to a b Elevations and Distances in the United States United States Geological Survey Archived from the original on July Retrieved October Jump up Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of Jump up Georgia History Overview The History Channel The History Channel Retrieved February Jump up Georgia at the Online Etymology Dictionary Online Etymology Dictionary Retrieved February Jump up to a b c d New Georgia Encyclopaedia The New Georgia Encyclopedia Retrieved February Jump up Coweta is the st fastest growing county in United States The Times Herald Archived from the original on December Retrieved May Jump up TIGER database January State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates Census gov United States Census Retrieved April Jump up Georgia Facts and Symbols Georgia gov Jump up Trustee Georgia Georgiaencyclopedia org July Retrieved October Jump up The Articles of Confederation Primary Documents of American History Virtual Programs Services Library of Congress Loc gov July Retrieved July Jump up A Resolution Georgia General Assembly Retrieved June Jump up Atlanta in the Civil Rights Movement Atlanta Regional

Council for Higher Education Atlantahighered org Retrieved July Jump up to a b Crowe Charles January Racial Violence and Social Reform Origins of the Atlanta Riot of The Journal of Negro History doi JSTOR Jump up Historical Census Browser Federal Census University of Virginia accessed March Jump up Ulrich Bonnell Phillips Georgia and state rights a study of the political history of Georgia from the Revolution to the Civil War Annual Report of American Historical Association for the th US Congress p Retrieved October Jump up Drought stricken Georgia eyes Tennessee's border and river water Los Angeles Times Los Angeles California February Jump up to a b c Georgia Flora and fauna City data com Retrieved July Jump up Monthly Averages for Macon GA The Weather Channel Jump up Monthly Averages for Clayton GA The Weather Channel Jump up Georgia USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map Retrieved November Jump up Each state's high temperature record USA Today last updated August Jump up Each state's low temperature record USA Today last updated August Jump up to a b Wurman Joshua Why don't tornadoes hit cities more often scientificamerican com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN A DIVISION OF NATURE AMERICA INC Retrieved June Jump up Weather By Day Georgia Weatherbyday com Retrieved October Jump up Census US Government Archived from the original on July Retrieved August contribution ignored help Jump up Illegals on rise in Southeast Melbourne FL Florida Today Associated Press February p A dead link Jump up Kanell Michael E November Number of veterans October Atlanta Georgia Atlanta Constitution Journal pp A quoting the Bureau of Labor Statistics Jump up American FactFinder Census October Archived from the original on May Retrieved August Jump up Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race to and By Hispanic Origin to For The United States Regions Divisions and States Census gov Archived from the original on December Retrieved July Jump up Population of Georgia Census and Interactive Map jessica-darlin jessica-fiorentino jessica-gabriel jessica-laine jessica-may jessica-road jessica-wylde Demographics
Statistics Quick Facts dead link Jump up Census Data Census gov Retrieved July Jump up Exner Rich June Americans under age now mostly minorities but not in Ohio Statistical Snapshot The Plain Dealer Jump up SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES American Community Survey Year Estimates Retrieved September Jump up American FactFinder Census Retrieved February Jump up Persons Who Reported at Least One Specific Ancestry Group for Regions Divisions and States PDF Census Retrieved October Jump up Pulera Dominic J Sharing the Dream White Males in a Multicultural America Jump up Farley Reynolds August The New Census Question about Ancestry What Did It Tell Us Demography doi PMID Jump up Lieberson Stanley Santi Lawrence The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns Social Science Research doi x Jump up Lieberson Stanley Waters Mary C September Ethnic Groups in Flux The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science doi Jump up Frey William H May The New Great Migration Black Americans' Return to the South PDF The Brookings Institution archived from the original PDF on April retrieved May Jump up Atlanta PDF profile GA Oca archived from the original PDF on July Jump up Georgia Quickfacts Census archived from the original on June Jump up Early Mountain Life Travel Georgia archived from the original on May Jump up Who are Americans The well Jump up to a b Georgia Modern Language Association Retrieved August Jump up Maps Pew Forum on Religion Public Life Retrieved October Jump up The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report www thearda com Retrieved November Jump up www thearda com rcms r s rcms state name asp Thearda com Retrieved July Jump up www georgiaencyclopedia org articles arts culture presbyterian church america Georgiaencyclopedia org Retrieved July Jump up Weiszer Marc September Georgia's Kublanow balances faith and football Savannah Now Kublanow wasn't just born Jewish he was raised and had his bar mitzvah while attending an orthodox Chabad synagogue His mother Shelly Kublanow Rosenblatt will attend Friday night and Saturday morning services at the Chabad House in Athens and then head to Sanford Stadium in the afternoon to watch Kublanow and his linemates clear the way for Todd Gurley Jump up Sollish Ari October Chabad Course Explores Israel's Spiritual Side Crown Heights Info ATLANTA GA A new six part adult education course from Chabad Lubavitch's Rohr Jewish Learning Institute will explore the spiritual connection between the Jewish people and the land of Israel starting at the end of October Unlike courses that focus on the history or the culture of Israel The Land the Spirit Why We All Care About Israel will explore the mystery of the deep connection between Jews everywhere and that small patch of land in the Middle East Jump up Senate Kids Retrieved December dead link Jump up Constitution of Georgia Article III Section II Retrieved December Archived December at the Wayback Machine Jump up The Supreme Court of Georgia History Supreme Court of Georgia Retrieved November Jump up A Brief History of Georgia Counties Retrieved December Archived November at the Wayback Machine Jump up Georgia's County Governments Georgiaencyclopedia org June Retrieved July Jump up Niesse Mark January Townships proposed as an alternative to cities in Georgia Atlanta Journal Constitution Retrieved April Jump up Race Voting Rights and Segregation University of Michigan Retrieved October Jump up to a b Saye Albert B A Constitutional History of Georgia University of Georgia Press Retrieved May Jump up Historical Census Browser US Census University of Virginia Retrieved March Archived August at the Wayback Machine Jump up Georgia's Disfranchisement Constitutional Amendment Ray City History Ray City Community Library Retrieved May Jump up A State Divided Ourgeorgiahistory com Retrieved July Jump up The long goodbye Economist com November Retrieved September Jump up The Confident Years Ngeorgia com Retrieved July Jump up Last white Democrat in House from Deep South wins re election Reuters com Retrieved September Jump up White voters solidly in for GOP in Georgia October Ajc com October Retrieved July Jump up to a b Election CNN Retrieved October Jump up Partisan composition of state houses Ballotpedia Ballotpedia Retrieved May Jump up Georgia State Senate Ballotpedia Ballotpedia Retrieved May Jump up Lee Epstein Thomas G Walk Constitutional Law Rights Liberties and Justice th Edition SAGE p Jump up Georgia Marriage Amendment Question Ballotpedia Retrieved May Jump up Bluestein Greg June Top Georgia court official Judges are following the law on gay marriages Atlanta Georgia Atlanta Constitution Journal Jump up GDP by State Greyhill Advisors Retrieved September Jump up Per Capita Personal Income by State Bureau of Business Economic Research UNM Retrieved April Jump up State credit ratings ballotpedia org Ballotpedia Retrieved July Jump up BEA statistics for GSP October Bea gov May Retrieved July Jump up Tharpe Jim January Atlanta Airport Still the Busiest The Atlanta Journal Constitution Archived from the original on January Retrieved January Jump up Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta International Airport Delta Air Lines Inc Retrieved June Jump up Belser Briana State of Georgia ranked No in business CBS com WGCL TV Meredith Corporation Retrieved November Jump up Did You Know Georgia Blueberry Commission Georgia Department of Agriculture Retrieved January Jump up Lohr Kathy September New Carpet Factories Help Cushion Blows From Recession Losses NPR Retrieved March Jump up Port of Savannah fourth busiest fastest growing in the U S Atlanta Business Chronicle American City Business Journals Retrieved August Jump up Energy Information Administration Tonto eia doe gov March Retrieved July Jump up Facts on the Georgia Solar Industry Georgia Solar Solar Energy Industries Association Retrieved January Jump up to a b Georgia's State and Local Tax Burden The Tax Foundation Archived from the original on November Retrieved February Jump up https etax dor ga gov salestax salestaxrates LGS Jul Rate Chart pdf permanent dead link Jump up Georgia Public Policy Foundation PDF Gppf org Archived from the original PDF on March Retrieved October Jump up Film Industry in Georgia The New Georgia Encyclopedia Retrieved April Jump up Georgia Industries Film Facts Archived February at the Wayback Machine Georgia Retrieved April Jump up Georgia Industries Film TV georgia org Retrieved April Jump up Zoo Atlanta Retrieved December Jump up Circues Retrieved December Jump up Alexander Sheridan Stone Mountain Park Georgia's Most Popular Attraction gosoutheast about com Retrieved November Jump up Rattlesnake Roundups Retrieved December Jump up Associated Press Aquarium sets Guinness record Official from world record book says aquarium is world's largest ajc com Retrieved November Jump up Callaway Gardens Retrieved December Jump up Savannah GA Historical Information Savannahvisit com Archived from the original on October Retrieved October Jump up Willamette Retrieved December Archived October at the Wayback Machine Jump up Atlanta Opera Retrieved December Jump up Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Retrieved December Jump up Literature Overview Retrieved December Jump up Tucker Tim March Atlanta tunes up for Final Four with South region Atlanta Journal Constitution Retrieved August Jump up Cobb Ty National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum Retrieved December Jump up Georgia Department of Natural Resources gadnr org accessed May Jump up National Park Service nps gov accessed May Jump up Appalachian Trail Retrieved December Jump up Civil War Heritage Trails Retrieved December Jump up Rock climbing Retrieved December Jump up Whitewater rafting Georgiaencyclopedia org July Retrieved July Jump up Staff A B S May Fayette County At Large Election Process Violates Voting Rights Act Jump up GA DOE Testing EOCT Retrieved April Archived May at the Wayback Machine Jump up Lowry Donna September New Georgia test will be different from CRCT Alive Retrieved August Jump up Designated Market Areas Nielsen Media Archived from the original on May Retrieved February Jump up AJC circulation continues to fall Atlanta Business Chronicle American City Business Journals April Jump up Georgia Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved March Jump up Network Georgia Public Radio archived from the original on February retrieved May Jump up About Georgia Public Radio archived from the original on May retrieved May Jump up Airport information Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta International Airport retrieved June Jump up Public Use Airports Georgia Encyclopedia retrieved June Jump up Dawson Christie Third quarter Public Transportation Ridership Report PDF American Public Transit Association Check date values in date help Jump up Living in Georgia Culture retrieved May Jump up Physical exercise Health graph Statemaster retrieved May Jump up US Census Bureau census gov March Retrieved June Jump up Metropolitan Area Population Housing Patterns Proximityone com Retrieved October Jump up American FactFinder Factfinder census gov Archived from the original
on September Retrieved August Jump up Atlanta moves to th largest US Metro area www ajc com Retrieved October Jump up Tieck Sarah Georgia Minneapolis MN ABDO Publishing Company p ISBN Jump up White Tailed Deer Named State Mammal of Georgia Georgia gov Jump up Look Georgia Agriculture on www georgia gov PDF Archived from the original PDF on July Retrieved August Bibliography edit Bartley Numan V The Creation of Modern Georgia Covers period ISBN Coleman Kenneth ed A History of Georgia ISBN X London Bonnie Bullard Georgia and the American Experience Atlanta Georgia Clairmont Press ISBN A middle school textbook Peirce Neal R The Deep South States of America People Politics and Power in the Seven Deep South States Information on politics and economics ISBN Williams David and Christopher C Meyers Georgia A Brief History Macon Mercer University Press External links edit The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America The Constitution originally comprising seven articles delineates the national carol-titian carolyn-connoly carolyn-monroe carrie-cruise cassandra-leigh cassidy cassie-courtland frame of government Its first three articles entrench the doctrine of the separation of powers whereby the federal government is divided into three branches the legislative consisting of the bicameral Congress the executive consisting of the President and the judicial consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts Articles Four Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it Since the Constitution came into force in it has been amended twenty seven times to meet the changing needs of a nation now profoundly different from the eighteenth century world in which its creators lived In general the first ten amendments known collectively as the Bill of Rights offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures Amendments to the United States Constitution unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide are appended to the document All four pages of the original U S Constitution are written on parchment According to the United States Senate The Constitution's first three words We the People affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights of liberty and equality and of the federal and state governments The first constitution of its kind adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation it is interpreted supplemented and implemented by a large body of constitutional law and has influenced the constitutions of other nations Contents hide Historical context First government Articles of Confederation Drafting Ratification Influences Original frame Preamble Article One Article Two Article Three Article Four Article Five Article Six Article Seven Closing endorsement Ratified amendments Safeguards of liberty Amendments Safeguards of justice Amendments Unenumerated rights and reserved powers Amendments Governmental authority Amendments Safeguards of civil rights Amendments Government processes and procedures Amendments Unratified amendments Still pending No longer pending Judicial review Scope and theory Establishment Self restraint Separation of powers Subsequent Courts Civic religion Worldwide influence Criticisms See also Notes References Footnotes Works cited Further reading External links U S government sources Non governmental sources Historical context See also History of the United States Constitution First government From September to March the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States Delegates to the First and then the Second Continental Congress were chosen largely through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than through the colonial or later state legislatures In no formal sense was it a gathering representative of existing colonial governments it represented the dissatisfied elements of the people such persons as were sufficiently interested to act despite the strenuous opposition of the loyalists and the obstruction or disfavor of colonial governors The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a central governing body Endowed by the people collectively the Continental Congress alone possessed those attributes of external sovereignty which entitled it to be called a state in the international sense while the separate states exercising a limited or internal sovereignty may rightly be considered a creation of the Continental Congress which preceded them kaitlyn-ashley kalena-rios kami-andrews kamila-smith kandee-licks kandi-barbour and brought them into being Articles of Confederation Main article Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid through late and ratification by all states was completed by early Under the Articles of Confederation the central government's power was quite limited The Confederation Congress could make decisions but lacked enforcement powers Implementation of most decisions including modifications to the Articles required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures Although in a way the Congressional powers in Article made the league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history the chief problem was in the words of George Washington no money The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless A popular phrase of the times called a useless object or person not worth a Continental referring to the Continental dollar Congress could borrow money but couldn't pay it back No state paid all their U S taxes some paid nothing Some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens but no more No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments By the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due Internationally the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States' ability to defend its sovereignty Most of the troops in the man United States Army were deployed facing but not threatening British forts on American soil They had not been paid some were deserting and others threatening mutiny Spain closed New Orleans to American commerce U S officials protested but to no effect Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom If any military crisis required action the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response Domestically the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the diverse sentiments and interests of the various states Although the Treaty of Paris was signed between Great Britain and the U S and named each of the American states various individual states proceeded blithely to violate it New York and South Carolina repeatedly prosecuted Loyalists for wartime activity and redistributed their lands Individual state legislatures independently laid embargoes negotiated directly with foreign authorities raised armies and made war all violating the letter and the spirit of the Articles In September during an inter state convention to discuss and develop a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected James Madison angrily questioned whether the Articles of Confederation was a binding compact or even a viable government Connecticut paid nothing and positively refused to pay U S assessments for two years A rumor had it that a seditious party of New York legislators had opened a conversation with the Viceroy of Canada To the south the British were said to be openly funding Creek Indian raids on white settlers in Georgia and adjacent territory Savannah then capital of Georgia had been fortified and the state of Georgia was under martial law Additionally during Shays' Rebellion August June in Massachusetts Congress could provide no money to support an endangered constituent state General Benjamin Lincoln was obliged to raise funds from Boston merchants to pay for a volunteer army Congress was paralyzed It could do nothing significant without nine states and some legislation required all thirteen When a state produced only one member in attendance its vote was not counted If a state's delegation were evenly divided its vote could not be counted towards the nine count requirement The Articles Congress had virtually ceased trying to govern The vision of a respectable nation among nations seemed to be fading in the eyes of revolutionaries such as George Washington Benjamin Franklin and Rufus King Their dream of a republic a nation without hereditary rulers cherry-hill chessie-moore cheyenne-hunter cheyenne-silver china-lee with power derived from the people in frequent elections was in doubt On February the Confederation Congress called a convention of state delegates at Philadelphia to propose a plan of government Unlike earlier attempts the convention was not meant for new laws or piecemeal alterations but for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation The convention was not limited to commerce rather it was intended to render the federal constitution adequate to the exigencies of government and the preservation of the Union The proposal might take effect when approved by Congress and the states Drafting Main article Constitutional Convention United States Signing the Constitution September On the appointed day May only the Virginia and Pennsylvania delegations were present and so the convention's opening meeting was postponed for lack of a quorum A quorum of seven states met and deliberations began on May Eventually twelve states were represented delegates were named attended and signed The delegates were generally convinced that an effective central government with a wide range of enforceable powers must replace the weaker Congress established by the Articles of Confederation Their depth of knowledge and experience in self government was remarkable As Thomas Jefferson in Paris wrote to John Adams in London It really is an assembly of demigods Delegates used two streams of intellectual tradition and any one delegate could be found using both or a mixture depending on the subject under discussion foreign affairs the economy national government or federal relationships among the states Two plans for structuring the federal government arose at the convention's outset The Virginia Plan also known as the Large State Plan or the Randolph Plan proposed that the legislative department of the national government be composed of a Bicameral Congress with both chambers elected with apportionment according to population Generally favoring the most highly populated states it used the philosophy of John Locke to rely on consent of the governed Montesquieu for divided government and Edward Coke to emphasize civil liberties The New Jersey Plan proposed that the legislative department be a unicameral body with one vote per state Generally favoring the less populous states it used the philosophy of English Whigs such as Edmund Burke to rely on received procedure and William Blackstone to emphasize sovereignty of the legislature This position reflected the belief that the states were independent entities and as they entered the United States of America freely and individually remained so On May the Convention devolved into a Committee of the Whole to consider the Virginia Plan On June the Virginia resolutions in amended form were reported out of committee The New Jersey plan was put forward in response to the Virginia Plan A Committee of Eleven one delegate from each state represented met from July to to work out a compromise on the issue of representation in the federal legislature All agreed to a republican form of government grounded in representing the people in the states For the legislature two issues were to be decided how the votes were to be allocated among the states in the Congress and how the representatives should be elected In its report now known as the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise the committee proposed proportional representation for seats in the House of Representatives based on population with the people voting for representatives and equal representation for each State in the Senate with each state's legislators generally choosing their respective senators and that all money bills would originate in the House The Great Compromise ended the stalemate between patriots and nationalists leading to numerous other compromises in a spirit of accommodation There were sectional interests to be balanced by the Three Fifths Compromise reconciliation on Presidential term powers and method of selection and jurisdiction of the federal judiciary On July a Committee of Detail John Rutledge
South Carolina Edmund Randolph Virginia Nathaniel Gorham Massachusetts Oliver Ellsworth Connecticut and James Wilson Pennsylvania was elected to draft a detailed constitution reflective of the Resolutions passed by the convention up to that point The Convention recessed from July to August to await the report of this Committee of Detail Overall the report of the committee conformed to the resolutions adopted by the Convention adding some elements A twenty three article plus preamble constitution was presented From August to September the report of the committee of detail was discussed section by section and clause by clause Details were attended to and further compromises were effected Toward the close of these discussions on September a Committee of Style and Arrangement Alexander Hamilton New York William Samuel Johnson Connecticut Rufus King Massachusetts James Madison Virginia and Gouverneur Morris Pennsylvania was appointed to distill a final draft constitution from the twenty three approved articles The final draft
presented to

the convention on September contained seven articles a preamble and a closing endorsement of which Morris was the primary author The committee also presented a proposed letter to accompany the constitution when delivered to Congress The final document engrossed by Jacob Shallus was taken up on Monday September at the Convention's final session Several of the delegates were disappointed in the result a makeshift series of unfortunate compromises Some delegates left before the ceremony and three others refused to sign Of the thirty nine signers Benjamin Franklin summed up addressing the Convention There are several parts of this Constitution which I do not at present approve but I am not sure I shall never approve them He would accept the Constitution because I expect no better and because I am not sure that it is not the best The advocates of the Constitution were anxious to obtain unanimous support of all twelve states represented in the Convention Their accepted formula for niko nina-cherry nina-deponca nina-hartley nina-preta oana-efria obaya-roberts olesja-derevko the closing endorsement was Done in Convention by the unanimous consent of the States present At the end of the convention the proposal was agreed to by eleven state delegations and the lone remaining delegate from New York Alexander Hamilton Ratification Transmitted to the United States in Congress Assembled then sitting in New York City the new Constitution was forwarded to the states by Congress recommending the ratification process outlined in the Constitution Each state legislature was to call elections for a Federal Convention to ratify the new Constitution They expanded the franchise beyond the Constitutional requirement to more nearly embrace the people Eleven ratified in or and all thirteen had done so by The Congress of the Confederation certified eleven states to begin the new government and called the states to hold elections to begin operation It then dissolved itself on March the day the first session of the Congress of the United States began George Washington was inaugurated as President two months later Territorial extent of the United States It was within the power of the old Congress of the Confederation to expedite or block the ratification of the new Constitution The document that the Philadelphia Convention presented was technically only a revision of the Articles of Confederation But the last article of the new instrument provided that when ratified by conventions in nine states or two thirds at the time it should go into effect among the States so acting Then followed an arduous process of ratification of the Constitution by specially constituted conventions The need for only nine states' approval was a controversial decision at the time since the Articles of Confederation could only be amended by unanimous vote of all the states Three members of the Convention Madison Gorham and King were also Members of Congress They proceeded at once to New York where Congress was in session to placate the expected opposition Aware of their vanishing authority Congress on September after some debate resolved unanimously to submit the Constitution to the States for action in conformity to the resolves of the Convention but with no recommendation either for or against its adoption Two parties soon developed one in opposition the Anti Federalists and one in support the Federalists of the Constitution and the Constitution was debated criticized and expounded upon clause by clause Hamilton Madison and Jay under the name of Publius wrote a series of commentaries now known as The Federalist Papers in support of ratification in the state of New York at that time a hotbed of anti Federalism These commentaries on the Constitution written during the struggle for ratification have been frequently cited by the Supreme Court as an authoritative contemporary interpretation of the meaning of its provisions The dispute over additional powers for the central government was close and in some states ratification was effected only after a bitter struggle in the state convention itself The Continental Congress which still functioned at irregular intervals passed a resolution on September to put the new Constitution into operation with eleven states North Carolina and Rhode Island ratified by May Influences Further information History of the United States Constitution This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed June Learn how and when to remove this template message This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards The specific problem is not encyclopedic Please help improve this section if you can February Learn how and when to remove this template message Enlightenment and Rule of law John Locke by Herman Verelst png John Locke Two Treatises of Government life liberty and property Several ideas in the Constitution were new These were associated with the combination of consolidated government along with federal relationships with constituent states The Due Process Clause of the Constitution was partly jody-maxwell joelle-lequement joelle-petinot johnni-black based on common law and on Magna Carta which had become a foundation of English liberty against arbitrary power wielded by a ruler Among the most prominent political theorists of the late eighteenth century were William Blackstone John Locke and Montesquieu Both the influence of Edward Coke and William Blackstone were evident at the Convention In his Institutes of the Lawes of England Edward Coke interpreted Magna Carta protections and rights to apply not just to nobles but to all British subjects In writing the Virginia Charter of he enabled the King in Parliament to give those to be born in the colonies all rights and liberties as though they were born in England William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England were the most influential books on law in the new republic British political philosopher John Locke following the Glorious Revolution was a major influence expanding on the contract theory of government advanced by Thomas Hobbes Locke advanced the principle of consent of the governed in his Two Treatises of Government Government's duty under a social contract among the sovereign people was to serve the people by protecting their rights These basic rights were life liberty and property Montesquieu's influence on the framers is evident in Madison's Federalist No and Hamilton's Federalist No Jefferson Adams and Mason were known to read Montesquieu Supreme Court Justices the ultimate interpreters of the Constitution have cited to Montesquieu throughout the Court's history See e g Green v Biddle U S United States v Wood U S Myers v United States U S Nixon v Administrator of General Services U S Bank Markazi v Peterson U S Montesquieu emphasized the need for balanced forces pushing against each other to prevent tyranny reflecting the influence of Polybius's nd century BC treatise on the checks and balances of the Roman Republic In his The Spirit of the Laws Montesquieu argues that the separation of state powers should be by its service to the people's liberty legislative executive and judicial A substantial body of thought had been developed from the literature of republicanism in the United States including work by John Adams and applied to the creation of state constitutions The constitution was a federal one and was influenced by the study of other federations both ancient and extant The United States Bill of Rights consists of amendments added to the Constitution in as supporters of the Constitution had promised critics during the debates of The English Bill of Rights was an inspiration for the American Bill of Rights Both require jury trials contain a right to keep and bear arms prohibit excessive bail and forbid cruel and unusual punishments Many liberties protected by state constitutions and the Virginia Declaration of Rights were incorporated into the Bill of Rights Original frame Neither the Convention which drafted the Constitution nor the Congress which sent it to the thirteen states for ratification in the autumn of gave it a lead caption To fill this void the document was most often titled A frame of Government when it was printed for the convenience of ratifying conventions and the information of the public This Frame of Government consisted of a preamble seven articles and a signed closing endorsement Preamble We the People in an original edition The preamble to the Constitution serves as an introductory statement of the document's fundamental purposes and guiding principles It neither assigns powers to the federal government nor does it place specific limitations on government action Rather it sets out the origin scope and purpose of the Constitution Its origin and authority is in We the people of the United States This echoes the Declaration of Independence One people dissolved their connection with another and assumed among the powers of the earth a sovereign nation state The scope of the Constitution is twofold First to form a more perfect Union than had previously existed in the perpetual Union of the Articles of Confederation Second to secure the blessings of liberty which were to be enjoyed by not only the first generation but for all who came after our posterity Article One Article One describes the Congress the legislative branch of the federal government Section reads All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives The article establishes the manner of election and the qualifications of members of each body Representatives must be at least years old be a citizen of the United States for seven years and live in the state they represent Senators must be at least years old be a citizen for nine years and live in the state they represent Article I Section enumerates the powers delegated to the legislature Financially Congress has the power to tax borrow pay debt and provide for the common defense and the general welfare to regulate commerce bankruptcies and coin money To regulate internal affairs it has the power to regulate and govern military forces and militias suppress insurrections and repel invasions francoise frankie-leigh gabriella gabriella-mirelba gabriella-vincze gail-force gail-palmer gail-sterling It is to provide for naturalization standards of weights and measures post offices and roads and patents to directly govern the federal district and cessions of land by the states for forts and arsenals Internationally Congress has the power to define and punish piracies and offenses against the Law of Nations to declare war and make rules of war The final Necessary and Proper Clause also known as the Elastic Clause expressly confers incidental powers upon Congress without the Articles' requirement for express delegation for each and every power Article I Section lists eight specific limits on congressional power The Supreme Court has sometimes broadly interpreted the Commerce Clause and the Necessary and Proper Clause in Article One to allow Congress to enact legislation that is neither expressly allowed by the enumerated powers nor expressly denied in the limitations on Congress In McCulloch v Maryland the Supreme Court read the Necessary and Proper Clause to permit the federal government to take action that would enable it to perform the high duties assigned to it by the Constitution in the manner most beneficial to the people even if that action is not itself within the enumerated powers Chief Justice Marshall clarified Let the end be legitimate let it be within the scope of the Constitution and all means which are appropriate which are plainly adapted to that end which are not prohibited but consist with the letter and spirit of the Constitution are Constitutional Article Two Article Two describes the office of the President of the United States The President is head of the executive branch of the federal government as well as the nation's head of state and head of government Article Two describes the office qualifications and duties of the President of the United States and the Vice President It is modified by the th Amendment which tacitly acknowledges political parties and the th Amendment relating to office succession The president is to
receive only one compensation from the federal government The inaugural oath is specified to preserve protect and defend the Constitution The president is the Commander in Chief of the United States Armed Forces and state militias when they are mobilized He or she makes treaties with the advice and consent of a two thirds quorum of the Senate To administer the federal government the president commissions all the offices of the federal government as Congress directs he or she may require the opinions of its principal officers and make recess appointments for vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate The president is to see that the laws are faithfully executed though he or she may grant reprieves and pardons except regarding Congressional impeachment of himself or other federal officers The president reports to Congress on the State of the Union and by the Recommendation Clause recommends necessary and expedient national measures The president may convene and adjourn Congress under special circumstances Section provides for removal of the president and other federal officers The president is removed on impeachment for and conviction of treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors Article Three Article Three describes the court system the judicial branch including the Supreme Court There shall be one court called the Supreme Court The article describes the kinds of cases the court takes as original jurisdiction Congress can create lower courts and an appeals process Congress enacts law defining crimes and providing for punishment Article Three also protects the right to trial by jury in all criminal cases and defines the crime of treason Section vests the judicial power of the United States in federal courts and with it the authority to interpret and apply the law to a particular case Also included is the power to punish sentence and direct future action to resolve conflicts The Constitution outlines the U S judicial system In the Judiciary Act of Congress began to fill in details Currently Title of the U S Code describes judicial powers and administration As of the First Congress the Supreme Court justices rode circuit to sit as panels to hear appeals from the district courts a In Congress enacted a new system District courts would have original jurisdiction Intermediate appellate courts circuit courts with exclusive jurisdiction heard regional appeals before consideration by the Supreme Court The Supreme Court holds discretionary jurisdiction meaning that it does not have to hear every case that is brought to it To enforce judicial decisions the Constitution grants federal courts both criminal contempt and civil contempt powers The court's summary punishment for contempt immediately overrides all other punishments applicable to the subject party Other implied powers include injunctive relief and the habeas corpus remedy The Court may imprison for contumacy bad faith litigation and failure to obey a writ of mandamus Judicial power includes that granted by Acts of Congress for rules of law and punishment Judicial power also extends to areas not covered by statute Generally federal courts cannot interrupt state court proceedings Clause of Section authorizes the federal courts to hear actual cases and controversies only Their judicial power does not extend to cases which are hypothetical or which are proscribed due to standing mootness or ripeness issues Generally a case or controversy requires the presence of adverse parties who have some interest genuinely at stake in the case Also required is of broad enough concern in the Court's jurisdiction that a lower court either federal or state does not geographically cover all the existing cases before law Courts following these guidelines exercise judicial restraint Those making an exception are said to be judicial activist b Clause of Section provides that the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in cases involving ambassadors ministers and consuls for all cases respecting foreign nation states and also in those controversies which are subject to federal judicial power because at least one state is a party Cases arising under the laws of the United States and its treaties come under the jurisdiction of federal courts Cases under international maritime law and conflicting land grants of different states come under federal courts Cases between U S citizens in different states and cases between U S citizens and foreign states and their citizens come under federal jurisdiction The trials will be in the state where the crime was committed No part of the Constitution expressly authorizes judicial review but the Framers did contemplate the idea The Constitution is the supreme law of the land Precedent has since established that the courts could exercise judicial review over the actions of Congress or the executive branch Two conflicting federal laws are under pendent jurisdiction if one presents a strict constitutional issue Federal court jurisdiction is rare when a state legislature enacts something as under federal jurisdiction c To establish a federal system of national law considerable effort goes into developing a spirit of comity between federal government and states By the doctrine of 'Res judicata' federal courts give full faith and credit to State Courts d The Supreme Court will decide Constitutional issues of state law only on a case by case basis and only by strict Constitutional necessity independent of state legislators motives their policy outcomes or its national wisdom e Section bars Congress from changing or modifying Federal law on treason by simple majority statute Treason is also defined in this section It's not enough merely to think a treasonous thought there must be an overt act of making war or materially helping those at war with the United States Accusations must be corroborated by at least two witnesses Congress is a political body and political disagreements routinely encountered should never be considered as treason This allows for nonviolent resistance to the government because opposition is not a life or death proposition However Congress does provide for other less patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price subversive crimes and punishments such as conspiracy f Article Four Article Four outlines the relations among the states and between each state and the federal government In addition it provides for such matters as admitting new states and border changes between the states For instance it requires states to give full faith and credit to the public acts records and court proceedings of the other states Congress is permitted to regulate the manner in which proof of such acts may be admitted The privileges and immunities clause prohibits state governments from discriminating against citizens of other states in favor of resident citizens e g having tougher penalties for residents of Ohio convicted of crimes within Michigan It also establishes extradition between the states as well as laying down a legal basis for freedom of movement and travel amongst the states Today this provision is sometimes taken for granted but in the days of the Articles of Confederation crossing state lines was often arduous and costly The Territorial Clause gives Congress the power to make rules for disposing of federal property and governing non state territories of the United States Finally the fourth section of Article Four requires the United States to guarantee to each state a republican form of government and to protect them from invasion and violence Article Five Article Five outlines the process for amending the Constitution Eight state constitutions in effect in included an amendment mechanism Amendment making power rested with the legislature in three of the states and in the other five it was given to specially elected conventions The Articles of Confederation provided that amendments were to be proposed by Congress and ratified by the unanimous vote of all thirteen state legislatures This proved to be a major flaw in the Articles as it created an insurmountable obstacle to constitutional reform The amendment process crafted during the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention was according to The Federalist No designed to establish a balance between pliancy and rigidity It guards equally against that extreme facility which would render the Constitution too mutable and that extreme difficulty which might perpetuate its discovered faults It moreover equally enables the General and the State Governments to originate the amendment of errors as they may be pointed out by the experience on one side or on the other There are two steps in the amendment process Proposals to amend the Constitution must be properly adopted and ratified before they change the Constitution First there are two procedures for adopting the language of a proposed amendment either by a Congress by two thirds majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives or b national convention which shall take place whenever two thirds of the state legislatures collectively call for one Second there are two procedures for ratifying the proposed amendment which requires three fourths of the states' presently of approval a consent of the state legislatures or b consent of state ratifying conventions The ratification method is chosen by Congress for each amendment State ratifying conventions were used only once for the Twenty first Amendment Presently the Archivist of the United States is charged with responsibility for administering the ratification process under the provisions of U S Code § b The Archivist submits the proposed amendment to the states for their consideration by sending a letter of notification to each Governor Each Governor then formally submits the amendment to their state's legislature When a state ratifies a proposed amendment it sends the Archivist an original or certified copy of the state's action Ratification documents are examined by the Office of the Federal Register for facial legal sufficiency and an authenticating signature Article Five ends by shielding certain clauses in the new frame of government from being amended Article One Section Clauses prevents Congress from passing any law that would restrict the importation of slaves into the United States prior to plus the fourth clause from that same section which reiterates the Constitutional rule that direct taxes must be apportioned according state populations These clauses were explicitly shielded from Constitutional amendment prior to On January the first day it was permitted to do so Congress approved legislation prohibiting the importation of slaves into the country On February with ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment Congress gained the authority to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census The third textually entrenched provision is Article One Section Clauses which provides for equal representation of the states in the Senate The shield protecting this clause from the amendment process is less absolute no state without its consent shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate but permanent Article Six Article Six establishes the Constitution and all federal laws and treaties of the United States made according to it to be
the supreme law of the land and that the judges in every state shall be bound thereby any thing in the laws or constitutions of any state notwithstanding It validates national debt created under the Articles of Confederation and requires that all federal and state legislators officers and judges take oaths or affirmations to support the Constitution This means that the states' constitutions and laws should not conflict with the laws of the federal constitution and that in case of a conflict state judges are legally bound to honor the federal laws and constitution over those of any state Article Six also states no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States Article Seven Article Seven describes the process for establishing the proposed new frame of government Anticipating that the influence of many state politicians would be Antifederalist delegates to the Philadelphia Convention provided for ratification of the Constitution by popularly elected kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet ratifying conventions in each state The convention method also made it possible that judges ministers and others ineligible to serve in state legislatures could be elected to a convention Suspecting that Rhode Island at least might not ratify delegates decided that the Constitution would go into effect as soon as nine states two thirds rounded up ratified Once ratified by this minimum number of states it was anticipated that the proposed Constitution would become this Constitution between the nine or more that signed It would not cover the four or fewer states that might not have signed Closing endorsement Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution The Signing of the United States Constitution occurred on September when delegates to the Constitutional Convention endorsed the constitution created during the convention In addition to signatures this closing endorsement the Constitution's eschatocol included a brief declaration that the delegates' work has been successfully completed and that those whose signatures appear on it subscribe to the final document Included are a statement pronouncing the document's adoption by the states present a formulaic dating of its adoption and the signatures of those endorsing it Additionally the convention's secretary William Jackson signed the document to authenticate the validity of the delegate signatures He also made a few secretarial notes The language of the concluding endorsement conceived by Gouverneur Morris and presented to the convention by Benjamin Franklin was made intentionally ambiguous in hopes of winning over the votes of dissenting delegates Advocates for the new frame of government realizing the impending difficulty of obtaining the consent of the states needed to make it operational were anxious to obtain the unanimous support of the delegations from each state It was feared that many of the delegates would refuse to give their individual assent to the Constitution Therefore in order that the action of the Convention would appear to be unanimous the formula Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present was devised The document is dated the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth This two fold epoch dating serves to place the Constitution in the context of the religious traditions of Western civilization and at the same time links it to the regime principles proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence This dual reference can also be found in the Articles of Confederation and the Northwest Ordinance The closing endorsement serves an authentication function only It neither assigns powers to the federal government nor does it provide specific limitations on government action It does however provide essential documentation of the Constitution's validity a statement of This is what was agreed to It records who signed the Constitution and when and where Ratified amendments United States Bill of Rights Currently housed in the National Archives See also List of amendments
to the United States Constitution The Constitution has twenty seven amendments Structurally the Constitution's original text and all prior amendments remain untouched The precedent for this practice was set in when Congress considered and proposed the first several Constitutional amendments Among these Amendments are collectively known as the Bill of Rights and Amendments are known as the Reconstruction Amendments Excluding the Twenty seventh Amendment which was pending before the states for years days the longest pending amendment that was successfully ratified was the Twenty second Amendment which took years days The Twenty sixth Amendment was ratified in the shortest time days The average ratification time for the first twenty six amendments was year days for all twenty seven years days A proposed amendment becomes an operative part of the Constitution as soon as it is ratified by three fourths of the States currently of the States There is no further step The text requires no additional action by Congress or anyone else after ratification by the required number of states Thus when the Office of the Federal Register verifies that it has received the required number of authenticated ratification documents it drafts a formal proclamation for the Archivist to certify that the amendment is valid and has become part of the nation's frame of government This certification is published in the Federal Register and United States Statutes at Large and serves as official notice to Congress and to the nation that the ratification process has been successfully completed Safeguards of liberty Amendments The First Amendment prohibits Congress from obstructing the exercise of certain individual freedoms freedom of religion freedom of speech freedom of the press freedom of assembly and right to petition Its Free Exercise Clause guarantees a person's right to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wants and to freely exercise that belief and its Establishment Clause prevents
the federal government cleo-nichole cleo-patra cody-lane cody-love cody-nicole from creating an official national church or favoring one set of religious beliefs over another The amendment guarantees an individual's right to express and to be exposed to a wide range of opinions and views It was intended to ensure a free exchange of ideas even if the ideas are unpopular It also guarantees an individual's right to physically gather with a group of people to picket or protest or associate with others in groups for economic political or religious purposes Additionally it guarantees an individual's right to petition the government for a redress of grievances The Second Amendment protects the right of individuals to keep and bear arms Although the Supreme Court has ruled that this right applies to individuals not merely to collective militias it has also held that the government may regulate or place some limits on the manufacture ownership and sale of firearms or similar devices Requested by several states during the Constitutional ratification debates the widespread desire for such an amendment reflected the lingering resentment over the widespread efforts of the British to confiscate the colonists' firearms at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War Patrick Henry had rhetorically asked shall we be stronger when we are totally disarmed and when a British Guard shall be stationed in every house The Third Amendment prohibits the federal government from forcing individuals to provide lodging to soldiers in their homes during peacetime without their consent Requested by several states during the Constitutional ratification debates the widespread desire for such an amendment reflected the lingering resentment over the Quartering Acts passed by the British Parliament during the Revolutionary War which had allowed British soldiers to take over private homes for their own use Safeguards of justice Amendments The Fourth Amendment protects people against unreasonable searches and seizures of either self or property by government officials A search can mean everything from a frisking by a police officer or to a demand for a blood test to

a search of an individual's home or car A seizure occurs when the government takes control of an individual or something in his or her possession Items that are seized often are used as evidence when the individual is charged with a crime It also imposes certain limitations on police investigating a crime and prevents the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial The Fifth Amendment establishes the requirement that a trial for a major crime may commence only after an indictment has been handed down by a grand jury protects individuals from double jeopardy being tried and put in danger of being punished more than once for the same criminal act prohibits punishment without due process of law thus protecting individuals from being imprisoned without fair procedures and provides that an accused person may not be compelled to reveal to the police prosecutor judge or jury any information that might incriminate or be used against him or her in a court of law Additionally the Fifth Amendment also prohibits government from taking private property for public use without just compensation the basis of eminent domain in the United States The Sixth Amendment provides several protections and rights to an individual accused of a crime The accused has the right to a fair and speedy trial by a local and impartial jury Likewise a person has the right to a public trial This right protects defendants from secret proceedings that might encourage abuse of the justice system and serves to keep the public informed This amendment also guarantees a right to legal counsel if accused of a crime guarantees that the accused may require witnesses to attend the trial and testify in the presence of the accused and guarantees the accused a right to know the charges against them In the Supreme Court ruled that with the Fifth Amendment this amendment requires what has become known as the Miranda warning The Seventh Amendment extends the right to a jury trial to federal civil cases and inhibits courts from overturning a jury's findings of fact Although the Seventh Amendment itself says that it is limited to suits at common law meaning cases that triggered the right to a jury under English law the amendment has been found to apply in lawsuits that are similar to the old common law cases For example the right to a jury trial applies to cases brought under federal statutes that prohibit race or gender discrimination in housing or employment Importantly this amendment guarantees the right to a jury trial only in federal court not in state court The Eighth Amendment protects people from having bail or fines set at an amount so high that it would be impossible for all but the richest defendants to pay and also protects people from being subjected to cruel and unusual punishment Although this phrase originally was intended to outlaw certain gruesome methods of punishment it has been broadened over the years to protect against punishments that are grossly disproportionate to or too harsh for the particular crime kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce This provision has also been used to challenge prison conditions such as extremely unsanitary cells overcrowding insufficient medical care and deliberate failure by officials to protect inmates from one another Unenumerated rights and reserved powers Amendments The Ninth Amendment declares that individuals have other fundamental rights in addition to those stated in the Constitution During the Constitutional ratification debates Anti Federalists argued that a Bill of Rights should be added One of the arguments the Federalists gave against the addition of a Bill of Rights was that because it was impossible to list every fundamental right it would be dangerous to list just some of them for fear of suggesting that the list was explicit and exhaustive thus enlarging the power of the federal government by implication The Anti Federalists persisted in favor of a Bill of Rights and consequently several state ratification conventions refused to ratify the Constitution without a more specific list of protections so the First Congress added what became the Ninth Amendment as a compromise Because the rights protected by the Ninth Amendment are not specified they are referred to as unenumerated The Supreme Court has found that unenumerated rights include such important rights as the right to travel the right to vote the right to keep personal matters private and to make important decisions about one's health care or body The Tenth Amendment was included in the Bill of Rights to further define the balance of power between the federal government and the states The amendment states that the federal government has only those powers specifically granted by the Constitution These powers include the power to declare war to collect taxes to regulate interstate business activities and others that are listed in the articles or in subsequent constitutional amendments Any power not listed is says the Tenth Amendment left to the states or the people While there is no specific list of what these reserved powers may be the Supreme Court has ruled that laws affecting family relations commerce that occurs within a state's own borders and local law enforcement activities are among those specifically reserved to the states or the people Governmental authority Amendments The Eleventh Amendment specifically prohibits federal courts from hearing cases in which a state is sued by an individual from another state or another country thus extending to the states sovereign immunity protection from certain types of legal liability Article Three Section Clause has been affected by this amendment which also overturned the Supreme Court's decision in Chisholm v Georgia The Sixteenth Amendment removed existing Constitutional constraints that limited the power of Congress to lay and collect taxes on income Specifically the apportionment constraints delineated in Article Section Clause have been removed by this amendment which also overturned an Supreme Court decision in Pollock v Farmers' Loan Trust Co that declared a federal income tax on rents dividends and interest unconstitutional This amendment has become the basis for all subsequent federal income tax legislation and has greatly expanded the scope of federal taxing and spending in the years since The Eighteenth Amendment prohibited the making transporting and selling of alcoholic beverages nationwide It also authorized Congress to enact legislation enforcing this prohibition Adopted at the urging of a national temperance movement proponents believed that the use of alcohol was reckless and destructive and that prohibition would reduce crime and corruption solve social problems decrease the need for welfare and prisons and improve the health of all Americans During prohibition it is estimated that alcohol consumption and alcohol related deaths declined dramatically But prohibition had other more negative consequences The amendment drove the lucrative alcohol business underground giving rise to a large and pervasive black market In addition prohibition encouraged disrespect for the law and strengthened organized crime Prohibition came to an end in when this amendment was repealed The Twenty first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment and returned the regulation of alcohol to the states Each state sets its own rules for the sale and importation of alcohol including the drinking age Because a federal law provides federal funds to states that prohibit the sale of alcohol to minors under the age of twenty one all fifty states have set their drinking age there Rules about how alcohol is sold vary greatly from state to state Safeguards of civil rights Amendments The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except as punishment for a crime and authorized Congress to enforce abolition Though millions of slaves had been declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation their post Civil War status was unclear as was the status of other millions Congress intended the Thirteenth Amendment to be a proclamation of freedom for all slaves throughout the nation and to take the question of emancipation away from yasmine-fitzgerald yelena-shieffer yvonne-green zara-whites zsanett-egerhazi zuzie-boobies politics This amendment rendered inoperative or moot several of the original parts of the constitution The Fourteenth Amendment granted United States citizenship to former slaves and to all persons subject to U S jurisdiction It also contained three new limits on state power a state shall not violate a citizen's privileges or immunities shall not deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law and must guarantee all persons equal protection of the laws These limitations dramatically expanded the protections of the Constitution This amendment according to the Supreme Court's Doctrine of Incorporation makes most provisions of the Bill of Rights applicable to state and local governments as well The mode of apportionment of representatives delineated in Article Section Clause has been superseded by that of this amendment which also overturned the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v Sandford The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits the use of race color or previous condition of servitude in determining which citizens may vote The last of three post Civil War Reconstruction Amendments it sought to abolish one of the key vestiges of slavery and to advance the civil rights and liberties of former slaves The Nineteenth Amendment prohibits the government from denying women the right to vote on the same terms as men Prior to the amendment's adoption only a few states permitted women to vote and to hold office The Twenty third Amendment extends the right to vote in presidential elections to citizens residing in the District of Columbia by granting the District electors in the Electoral College as if it were a state When first established as the nation's capital in the District of Columbia's five thousand residents had neither a local government nor the right to vote in federal elections By the population of the District had grown to over people However while its residents had all the responsibilities of citizenship such as paying federal taxes and could be drafted to serve in the military citizens in thirteen states with lower populations had more voting rights than District residents The Twenty fourth Amendment prohibits a poll tax for voting Although passage of the Thirteenth Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments helped remove many of the discriminatory laws left over from slavery they did not eliminate all forms of discrimination Along with literacy tests and durational residency requirements poll taxes were used to keep low income primarily African American citizens from participating in elections The Supreme Court has since struck down these discriminatory measures opening democratic participation to all regardless of one's ability to pay The Twenty sixth Amendment prohibits the government from denying the right of United States citizens eighteen years of age or older to vote on account of age The drive to lower the voting age was driven in large part by the broader student activism movement protesting the Vietnam War It gained strength following the Supreme Court's decision in Oregon v Mitchell which held that Congress may set requirements for voting in federal elections but not for state or local elections The measure which overturns the Mitchell decision is another in a line of constitutional changes that expanded the right to vote to more citizens Government processes and procedures Amendments The Twelfth Amendment modifies the way the Electoral College chooses the President and Vice President It stipulates that each elector must cast a distinct vote for President and Vice President instead of two votes for President It also suggests that the President and Vice President should not be from the same state The electoral process delineated by Article II Section Clause has been superseded by that of this amendment which also extends the eligibility requirements to become President to the Vice President The Seventeenth Amendment modifies the way senators are elected It stipulates that senators are to be elected by direct popular vote The amendment supersedes Article Section Clauses and under which the two senators from each state were elected by the state legislature It also allows state legislatures to permit their governors to make temporary appointments until a special election can be held The Twentieth Amendment changes the date on which a new President Vice President and Congress take office thus shortening the time between Election Day and the beginning of Presidential Vice Presidential and Congressional terms Originally the Constitution provided that the annual meeting was to be on the first Monday in December unless otherwise provided by law The Articles Congress had determined as a transitional measure to the new constitution that the date for commencing proceedings under the U S Constitution would be March This became the date on which new federal officials took office in subsequent years This meant that when a new Congress was elected in November it did not come into office until the following March with a lame duck Congress convening in the interim However as transportation and communications improved this became an unnecessarily long delay By moving the beginning of the president's new term from March to January and in the case of Congress to January proponents hoped to put an end to lame duck sessions while allowing for a speedier transition for the new administration and legislators The Twenty second Amendment limits an elected president to two terms in office a total of eight years However under some circumstances it is possible for an individual to serve more than eight years Although nothing in the original frame of government limited how many presidential terms one could serve the nation's first president George Washington declined to run for a third term suggesting that two terms of four years were enough for any president This precedent remained an unwritten rule of the presidency until broken by Franklin D Roosevelt who was elected to a third term as president and in to a fourth The Twenty fifth Amendment clarifies what happens upon the death removal or resignation of the President or Vice President and how the
Presidency danica-rhea daniela-nanou daniela-schiffer daniele-troeger daniella daniella-schiffer is temporarily filled if the President becomes disabled and cannot fulfill the responsibilities of the office It supersedes the ambiguous succession rule established in Article II Section Clause A plan of succession has frequently been necessary Eight presidents have died in office and one resigned from office mid term Similarly seven vice presidents have died in office and two resigned mid term This has meant that for nearly of U S history there has been no Vice President in office who can assume the Presidency The Twenty seventh Amendment prevents members of Congress from granting themselves pay raises during the current session Rather any raises that are adopted must take effect during the next session of Congress Its proponents believed that Federal legislators would be more likely to be cautious about increasing congressional pay if they have no personal stake in the vote Article One section Clause has been affected by this amendment which remained pending for over two centuries

as it contained no time limit for ratification Unratified amendments Collectively members of the House and Senate typically propose around amendments during each two year term of Congress Most however never get out of the Congressional committees in which they were proposed and only a fraction of those that do receive enough support to win Congressional approval to actually go through the constitutional ratification process Six amendments approved by Congress and proposed to the states for consideration have not been ratified by the required number of states to become part of the Constitution Four of these are technically still pending as Congress did not set a time limit see also Coleman v Miller for their ratification The other two are no longer pending as both had a time limit attached and in both cases the time period set for their ratification expired Still pending The Congressional Apportionment Amendment proposed would if ratified establish a formula for determining the appropriate size of the House of Representatives and the appropriate apportionment of representatives among the states following each constitutionally mandated decennial census At the time it was sent to the states for ratification an affirmative vote by ten states would have made this amendment operational In and when Vermont and Kentucky joined the Union the number climbed to twelve Thus the amendment remained one state shy of the number needed for it to become part of the Constitution No additional states have ratified this amendment since To become part of the Constitution today ratification by an additional twenty seven would be required The Apportionment Act of apportioned the House of Representatives at persons per representative in consequence of the census Reapportionment has since been effected by statute The Titles of Nobility Amendment proposed would if ratified strip United States citizenship from any citizen who accepted a title of nobility from a foreign country When submitted to the states ratification by thirteen states was required for it to become part of the Constitution eleven had done so by early However with the addition of Louisiana into the Union that year April the ratification threshold rose to fourteen Thus when New Hampshire ratified it in December the amendment again came within two states of being ratified No additional states have ratified this amendment since To become part of the Constitution today ratification by an additional twenty six would be required The Corwin Amendment proposed would if ratified shield domestic institutions of the states which in included slavery from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress This proposal was one of several measures considered by Congress in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to attract the seceding states back into the Union and to entice border slave states to stay Three states ratified the amendment in the early s but none have since To become part of the Constitution today ratification by an additional thirty five states would be pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver required The subject of this proposal was subsequently addressed by the Thirteenth Amendment which abolished slavery The Child Labor Amendment proposed would if ratified specifically authorize Congress to limit regulate and prohibit labor of persons less than eighteen years of age The amendment was proposed in response to Supreme Court rulings in Hammer v Dagenhart and Bailey v Drexel Furniture Co that found federal laws regulating and taxing goods produced by employees under the ages of and unconstitutional When submitted to the states ratification by states was required for it to become part of the Constitution as there were forty eight states Twenty eight had ratified the amendment by early but none have done so since To become part of the Constitution today ratification by an additional ten would be required A federal statute approved June regulated the employment of those under or years of age in interstate commerce The Supreme Court by unanimous vote in United States v Darby Lumber Co found this law constitutional effectively overturning Hammer v Dagenhart As a result of this development the movement pushing for the amendment concluded No longer pending The Equal Rights Amendment proposed would have prohibited deprivation of equality of rights discrimination by the federal or state governments on account of sex A seven year ratification time limit was initially placed on the amendment but as the deadline approached Congress granted a three year extension Thirty five states ratified the proposed amendment prior to the original deadline three short of the number required for it to be implemented five of them later voted to rescind their ratification No further states ratified the amendment thus it failed to be adopted The District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment proposed would have granted the District of Columbia full representation in the United States Congress as if it were a state repealed the rd Amendment granted the District unconditional Electoral College voting rights and allowed its participation in the process by which the Constitution is amended A seven year ratification time limit was placed on the amendment Sixteen states ratified the amendment twenty two short of the number required for it to be implemented prior to the deadline thus it failed to be adopted Judicial review See also Judicial review in the United States Judicial review and Appeal § Appellate review The way the Constitution is understood is influenced by court decisions especially those of the Supreme Court These decisions are referred to as precedents Judicial review is the power of the Court to examine federal legislation federal executive and all state branches of government to decide their constitutionality and to strike them down if found unconstitutional Judicial review includes the power of the Court to explain the meaning of the Constitution as it applies to particular cases Over the years Court decisions on issues ranging from governmental regulation of radio and television to the rights of the accused in criminal cases have changed the way many constitutional clauses are interpreted without amendment to the actual text of the Constitution Legislation passed to implement the Constitution or to adapt those implementations to changing conditions broadens and in subtle ways changes the meanings given to the words of the Constitution Up to a point the rules and regulations of the many federal executive agencies have a similar effect If an action of Congress or the agencies is challenged however it is the court system that ultimately decides whether these actions are permissible under the Constitution The Supreme Court has indicated that once the Constitution has been extended to an area by Congress or the Courts its coverage is irrevocable To hold that the political branches may switch the Constitution on or off at will would lead to a regime in which they not this Court say what the law is g Scope and theory Courts established by the Constitution can regulate government under the Constitution the supreme law of the land First they have jurisdiction over actions by an officer of government and state law Second federal courts may rule on whether coordinate branches of national government conform to the Constitution Until the twentieth century the Supreme Court of the United States may have been the only high tribunal in the world to use a court for constitutional interpretation of fundamental law others generally depending on their national legislature Early Court roots in the founding John Jay New York co author The Federalist Papers John Marshall Fauquier County delegate Virginia Ratification Convention The basic theory of American Judicial review is summarized by constitutional legal scholars and historians as follows the written Constitution is fundamental law It can change only by extraordinary legislative process of national proposal then state ratification The powers of all departments are limited to enumerated grants found in the Constitution Courts are expected a to enforce provisions of the Constitution as the supreme law of the land and b to refuse to enforce anything in conflict with it In Convention As to judicial review and the Congress the first proposals by Madison Va and Wilson Pa called for a supreme court veto over national legislation In this it resembled the system in New York where the Constitution of called for a Council of Revision by the Governor and Justices of the state supreme court The Council would review and in a way veto any passed legislation violating the spirit of the Constitution before it went into effect The nationalist's proposal in Convention was defeated three times and replaced by a presidential veto with Congressional over ride Judicial review relies on the jurisdictional authority in Article III and the Supremacy Clause The justification for judicial review is to be explicitly found in the open ratifications held in the states and reported in their newspapers John Marshall in Virginia James Wilson in Pennsylvania and Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut all argued for Supreme Court judicial review of acts karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili of state legislature In Federalist No Alexander Hamilton advocated the doctrine of a written document held as a superior enactment of the people A limited constitution can be preserved in practice no other way than through courts which can declare void any legislation contrary to the Constitution The preservation of the people's authority over legislatures rests particularly with judges h The Supreme Court was initially made up of jurists who had been intimately connected with the framing of the Constitution and the establishment of its government as law John Jay New York a co author of The Federalist Papers served as Chief Justice for the first six years The second Chief Justice for a term of four years was Oliver Ellsworth Connecticut a delegate in the Constitutional Convention as was John Rutledge South Carolina Washington's recess appointment as Chief Justice who served in John Marshall Virginia the fourth Chief Justice had served in the Virginia Ratification Convention in His service on the Court would extend years over some of the most important rulings to help establish the nation the Constitution had begun In the first years of the Supreme Court members of the Constitutional Convention who would serve included James Wilson Pennsylvania for ten years John Blair Jr Virginia for five and John Rutledge South Carolina for one year as Justice then Chief Justice in Establishment When John Marshall followed Oliver Ellsworth as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in the federal judiciary had been established by the Judiciary Act but there were few cases and less prestige The fate of judicial review was in the hands of the Supreme Court itself Review of state legislation and appeals from state supreme courts was understood But the Court's life jurisdiction over state legislation was limited The Marshall Court's landmark Barron v Baltimore held that the Bill of Rights restricted only the federal government and not the states In the landmark Marbury v Madison case the Supreme Court asserted its authority of judicial review over Acts of Congress Its findings were that Marbury and the others had a right to their commissions as judges in the District of Columbia The law afforded Marbury a remedy at court Then Marshall writing the opinion for the majority announced his discovered conflict between Section of the Judiciary Act of and Article III i j In this case both the Constitution and the statutory law applied to the particulars at the same time The very essence of judicial duty according to Marshall was to determine which of the two conflicting rules should govern The Constitution enumerates powers of the judiciary to extend to cases arising under the Constitution Further justices take a Constitutional oath to uphold it as Supreme law of the land Therefore since the United States government as created by the Constitution is a limited government the Federal courts were required to choose the Constitution over Congressional law if there were deemed to be a conflict between them This argument has been ratified by time and by practice k l Marshall The Supreme Court did not declare another Act of Congress unconstitutional until the disastrous Dred Scott decision in held after the voided Missouri Compromise statute had already been repealed In the eighty years following the Civil War to World War II the Court voided Congressional statutes in cases on average almost one a year Something of a crisis arose when in and the Supreme Court handed down twelve decisions voiding Acts of Congress relating to the New Deal President Franklin D Roosevelt then responded with his abortive court packing plan Other proposals have suggested a Court super majority to overturn Congressional legislation or a Constitutional Amendment to require that the Justices retire at a specified age by law To date the Supreme Court's power of judicial review has persisted Self restraint The power of judicial review could not have been preserved long in a democracy unless it had been wielded with a reasonable measure of judicial restraint and with some attention as Mr Dooley said to the election returns Indeed the Supreme Court has developed a system of doctrine and practice that self limits its power of judicial review The Court controls almost all of its business by choosing what cases to consider writs of certiorari In this way it can avoid opinions on embarrassing or difficult cases The Supreme Court limits itself by defining for itself what is a justiciable question First the Court is fairly consistent in refusing to make any advisory opinions in advance of actual cases m Second friendly suits between those of the same legal interest are not considered Third the Court requires a personal interest not one generally held and a legally protected right must be immediately threatened by government action Cases are not taken up if the litigant has no standing to sue Simply having the money to sue and being injured by government action are not enough These three procedural ways of dismissing cases have led critics to charge that the Supreme Court delays decisions by unduly

insisting on technicalities in their standards of litigability Under the Court's practice there are cases left unconsidered which are in the public interest with genuine controversy and resulting from good faith action The Supreme Court is not only a court of law but a court of justice Separation of powers The Supreme Court balances several pressures to maintain its roles in national government It seeks to be a co equal branch of government but its decrees must be enforceable The Court seeks to minimize situations where it asserts itself superior to either President or Congress but federal officers must be held accountable The Supreme Court assumes power to declare acts of Congress as unconstitutional but it self limits its passing on constitutional questions But the Court's guidance on basic problems of life and governance in a democracy is most effective when American political life reinforce its rulings Justice Brandeis summarized four general guidelines that the Supreme Court uses to avoid constitutional decisions relating to Congress n The Court will not anticipate a question of constitutional law nor decide open questions unless a case decision requires it If it does a rule of constitutional law is formulated only as the precise facts in the case require The Court will choose statutes or general law for the basis of its decision if it can without constitutional grounds If it does the Court will choose a constitutional construction of an Act of Congress even if its constitutionality is seriously in doubt Likewise with the Executive Department Edwin Corwin observed that the Court does sometimes rebuff presidential pretensions but it more often tries to rationalize them Against Congress an Act is merely disallowed In the executive case exercising judicial review produces some change in the external world beyond the ordinary judicial sphere The political question doctrine especially applies to questions which present a difficult enforcement issue Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes addressed the Court's limitation when political denice-klarskov denise-derringer denise-dior denise-sloan desiree-cousteau desiree-foxx process allowed future policy change but a judicial ruling would attribute finality Political questions lack satisfactory criteria for a judicial determination John Marshall recognized that the president holds important political powers which as Executive privilege allows great discretion This doctrine was applied in Court rulings on President Grant's duty to enforce the law during Reconstruction It extends to the sphere of foreign affairs Justice Robert Jackson explained Foreign affairs are inherently political wholly confided by our Constitution to the political departments of the government and not subject to judicial intrusion or inquiry Critics of the Court object in two principal ways to self restraint in judicial review deferring as it does as a matter of doctrine to Acts of Congress and Presidential actions Its inaction is said to allow a flood of legislative appropriations which permanently create an imbalance between the states and federal government Supreme Court deference to Congress and the executive compromises American protection of civil rights political minority groups and aliens Further information Separation of powers under the United States Constitution Subsequent Courts Main article History of the Supreme Court of the United States Supreme Courts under the leadership of subsequent Chief Justices have also used judicial review to interpret the Constitution among individuals states and federal branches Notable contributions were made by the Chase Court the Taft Court the Warren Court and the Rehnquist Court Further information List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Chase Court Salmon P Chase was a Lincoln appointee serving as Chief Justice from to His career encompassed service as a U S Senator and Governor of Ohio He coined the slogan Free soil free Labor free men One of Lincoln's team of rivals he was appointed Secretary of Treasury during the Civil War issuing greenbacks To appease radical Republicans Lincoln appointed him to replace Chief Justice Roger B Taney of Dred Scott case fame In one of his first official acts Chase admitted John Rock the first African American to practice before the Supreme Court The Chase Court is famous for Texas v White which asserted a permanent Union of indestructible states Veazie Bank v Fenno upheld the Civil War tax on state banknotes Hepburn v Griswold found parts of the Legal Tender Acts unconstitutional though it was reversed under a late Supreme Court majority Further information List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Taft Court Scope of judicial review expanded Salmon P Chase o Union Reconstruction William Howard Taft p commerce incorporation Earl Warren q due process civil rights William Rehnquist r federalism privacy William Howard Taft was a Harding appointment to Chief Justice from to A Progressive Republican from Ohio he was a one term President As Chief Justice he advocated the Judiciary Act of that brought the Federal District Courts under the administrative jurisdiction of the Supreme Court Taft successfully sought the expansion of Court jurisdiction over non states such as District of Columbia and Territories of Arizona New Mexico Alaska and Hawaii In the Taft Court issued a ruling overturning a Marshall Court ruling on the Bill of Rights In Gitlow v New York the Court established the doctrine of incorporation which applied the Bill of Rights to the states Important cases included the Board of Trade of City of Chicago v Olsen that upheld Congressional regulation of commerce Olmstead v United States allowed exclusion of evidence obtained without a warrant based on application of the th Amendment proscription against unreasonable searches Wisconsin v Illinois ruled the equitable power of the United States can impose positive action on a state to prevent its inaction from damaging another state Further information List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Warren Court Earl Warren was an Eisenhower nominee Chief Justice from to Warren's Republican career in the law reached from County Prosecutor California state attorney general and three consecutive terms as Governor His programs stressed progressive efficiency expanding state education re integrating returning veterans infrastructure and highway construction In the Warren Court overturned a landmark Fuller Court ruling on the Fourteenth Amendment interpreting racial segregation as permissible in government and commerce providing separate but equal services Warren built a coalition of Justices after that developed the idea of natural rights as guaranteed in the Constitution Brown v Board of Education banned segregation in public schools Baker v Carr and Reynolds v Sims established Court ordered one man one vote Bill of Rights Amendments were incorporated into the states Due process was expanded in Gideon v Wainwright and Miranda v Arizona First Amendment rights were addressed in Griswold v Connecticut concerning privacy and Engel v Vitale relative to free speech Further information List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Rehnquist Court

William Rehnquist was a Reagan appointment to Chief Justice serving from to While he would concur with overthrowing a state supreme court's decision as in Bush v Gore he built a coalition of Justices after that developed the idea of federalism as provided for in the Tenth Amendment In the hands of the Supreme Court the Constitution and its Amendments were to restrain Congress as in City of Boerne v Flores Nevertheless the Rehnquist Court was noted in the contemporary culture wars for overturning state laws relating to privacy prohibiting late term abortions in Stenberg v Carhart prohibiting sodomy in Lawrence v Texas or ruling so as to protect free speech in Texas v Johnson or affirmative action in Grutter v Bollinger Civic religion Main article American civil religion There is a viewpoint that some Americans have come to see the documents of the Constitution along with the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights as being a cornerstone of a type of civil religion This is suggested by kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples the prominent display of the Constitution along with the

Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights in massive bronze framed bulletproof moisture controlled glass containers vacuum sealed in a rotunda by day and in multi ton bomb proof vaults by night at the National Archives Building The idea of displaying the documents struck one academic critic looking from the point of view of the or America as idolatrous and also curiously at odds with the values of the Revolution By Jefferson wrote that s ome men look at constitutions with sanctimonious reverence and deem them like the Ark of the Covenant too sacred to be touched But he saw imperfections and imagined that there could potentially be others believing as he did that institutions must advance also Some commentators depict the multi ethnic multi sectarian United States as held together by a political orthodoxy in contrast with a nation state of people having more natural ties Worldwide influence José Rizal Sun Yat sen Main article United States Constitution and worldwide influence The United States Constitution has been a notable model for governance around the world Its international influence is found in similarities of phrasing and borrowed passages in other constitutions as well as in the principles of the rule of law separation of powers and recognition of individual rights The American experience of fundamental law with amendments and judicial review has motivated constitutionalists at times when they were considering the possibilities for their nation's future It informed Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War s his contemporary and ally Benito Juárez of Mexico t and the second generation of th century constitutional nationalists José Rizal of the Philippines u and Sun Yat sen of China v Since the latter half of the th century the influence of the United States Constitution may be waning as other countries have revised their constitutions with new influences Criticisms Further information History of the United States Constitution § Criticism of the Constitution The United States Constitution has faced various criticisms since its inception in The Constitution did not originally define who was eligible to vote allowing each state to determine who was eligible In the early history of the U S most states allowed only white male adult property owners to vote Until the Reconstruction Amendments were adopted between and the five years immediately following the Civil War the Constitution did not abolish slavery nor give citizenship and voting rights to former slaves These amendments did not include a specific prohibition on discrimination on the basis of sex it took another amendment the Nineteenth ratified in for the Constitution to prohibit any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex See also Timeline of drafting and ratification of the United States Constitution Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States by Joseph Story three volumes Congressional power of enforcement Constitution Day United States History of democracy List of national constitutions world countries List of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution List of sources of law in the United States National Constitution Center Pocket Constitution State constitution United States Second Constitutional Convention of the United States The Constitution of the United States of America Analysis and Interpretation Related documents Mayflower Compact Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Massachusetts Body of Liberties Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights United States Declaration of Independence Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom Notes a Jump up The Judiciary Act of established six Supreme Court justices The number was periodically increased reaching ten in allowing Lincoln additional appointments After the Civil War vacancies reduced the number to seven Congress finally fixed the number at nine b Jump up The four concepts which determine justiciability the formula for a federal court taking and deciding a case are the doctrines of a standing b real and substantial dorothy-lemay dorothy-onan drea drimla dru-berrymore dusty-rose dyanna-lauren interests c adversity and d avoidance of political questions c Jump up Judicial Review is explained in Hamilton's Federalist No It also has roots in Natural Law expressions in the Declaration of Independence The Supreme Court first ruled an act of Congress unconstitutional in Marbury v Madison the second was Dred Scott d Jump up For instance 'collateral estoppel' directs that when a litigant wins in a state court they cannot sue in federal court to get a more favorable outcome e Jump up Recently numerous habeas corpus reforms have tried to preserve a working relationship of comity and simultaneously streamline the process for state and lower courts to apply Supreme Court interpretations f Jump up Contrary to this source when viewed the Constitution provides that punishments including forfeiture of income and property must apply to the person convicted No attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture on the convicted traitor's children or heirs This avoids the perpetuation of civil war into the generations by Parliamentary majorities as in the Wars of the Roses g Jump up Downes v Bidwell U S commenting on an earlier Supreme Court decision Loughborough v Blake U S Wheat Rasmussen v United States U S concurring opinions of Justices Harlan and Brown that once the Constitution has been extended to an area its coverage is irrevocable Boumediene v Bush That where the Constitution has been once formally extended by Congress to territories neither Congress nor the territorial legislature can enact laws inconsistent therewith The Constitution grants Congress and the President the power to acquire dispose of and govern territory not the power to decide when and where its terms apply h Jump up The Supreme Court found cases of invalid state statutes from to before the advent of Civil Rights cases in the last half of the Twentieth Century i Jump up In this John Marshall leaned on the argument of Hamilton in Federalist No j Jump up Although it may be that the true meaning of the Constitution to the people of the United States in can only be divined by a study of the state ratification conventions the Supreme Court has used the Federalist Papers as a supplemental guide to the Constitution since their co author John Jay was the first Chief Justice k Jump up The entire quote reads This argument has been ratified by time and by practice and there is little point in quibbling with it Of course the President also takes an oath to support the Constitution l Jump up The presidential reference is to Andrew Jackson's disagreement with Marshall's Court over Worcester v Georgia finding Georgia could not impose its laws in Cherokee Territory Jackson replied John Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it and the Trail of Tears proceeded Jackson would not politically interpose the U S Army between Georgia and the Cherokee people as Eisenhower would do between Arkansas and the integrating students m Jump up Advisory opinions are not the same as declaratory judgments a These address rights and legal relationships in cases of actual controversy and b the holding has the force and effect of a final judgment c There is no coercive order as the parties are assumed to follow the judgment but a declaratory judgment is the basis of any subsequent ruling in case law n Jump up Louis Brandeis concurring opinion Ashwander v Tennessee Valley Authority o Jump up The Chase Court in were the Hon Salmon P Chase Chief Justice U S Hon Nathan Clifford Maine Stephen J Field Justice Supreme Court U S Hon Samuel F Miller U S Supreme Court Hon Noah H Swayne Justice Supreme Court U S Judge Morrison R Waite p Jump up The Taft Court in were James Clark McReynolds Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr William Howard Taft Chief Justice Willis Van Devanter Louis Brandeis Edward Sanford George Sutherland Pierce Butler Harlan Fiske Stone q Jump up The Warren Court in were Felix Frankfurter Hugo Black Earl Warren Chief Justice Stanley Reed WIlliam O Douglas Tom Clark Robert H Jackson Harold Burton Sherman Minton r Jump up The Rehnquist Court s Jump up

Secession was indeed unconstitutional military resistance to secession was not only constitutional but also morally justified the primary purpose of the Constitution was to create 'a more perfect union' the Constitution was an exercise in nation building t Jump up Juarez regarded the United States as a model of republican democracy and consistently supported Abraham Lincoln u Jump up The institutions of the two countries which have most influenced constitutional development are Spain and the United States One of the reforms sine quibus non to use the words of Rizal and Mabini always insisted upon by the Filipinos was Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortez the promulgation in the Islands of the Spanish Constitution and the complete assimilation equal to that of any in the Spanish provinces on the continent v Jump up In the modern history of China there were many revolutionaries who tried to seek the truth from the West in order to overthrow the feudal system of the Qing dynasty Dr Sun Yat sen for example was much influenced by American democracy especially the U S Constitution References Footnotes Jump up Maier p Jump up United States Senate Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America PDF The Constitution of the United States of America Analysis and Interpretation PDF U S Government Printing Office p n ISBN Jump up to a b Constitution Day Senate gov United States Senate Retrieved September Jump up Ritchie Donald Bill of Rights Annenberg Classroom Glossary Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved September Jump up Lloyd Gordon Introduction to the Bill of Rights TeachingAmericanHistory org The Ashbrook Center at Ashland University Retrieved September Jump up America's Founding Documents October Jump up Differences between Parchment Vellum and Paper August Jump up McLaughlin Andrew C A constitutional History of the United States New York London D Appleton Century Company pp Retrieved August Jump up Morris Richard B diane-suresne dido-angel dillan-lauren dina-deville dina-jewel dina-pearl ditty-blue December Presidential Address Speech American Historical Association Retrieved June Jump up Fritz Christian G American Sovereigns The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War New York Cambridge University Press p ISBN noting that Madison along with other Americans clearly understood the Articles of Confederation to be the first federal Constitution Jump up Jensen Merrill The New Nation A History of the United States During the Confederation Boston Northeastern University Press pp ISBN Jump up Wood Gordon S The Creation of the American Republic Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press p ISBN Jump up to a b c d e f Maier pp Jump up Maier pp Jump up Bowen pp Jump up Bowen p Jump up Maier pp Jump up Maier p Jump up Wood pp Jump up Maier pp Jump up Resolution of Congress Feb The Founders' Constitution University of Chicago Press The Articles Congress thus echoed a previous resolution of a conference at Annapolis see Proceedings of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government Jump up Maier p Jump up Maier p Jump up to a b America's Founding Fathers Delegates to the Constitutional Convention The U S National Archives and Records Administration Retrieved April Jump up Variant Texts of the Virginia Plan Presented by Edmund Randolph to the Federal Convention The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Retrieved April Jump up The Debates in the Federal Convention of reported by James Madison on June The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Retrieved April Jump up to a b Committee Assignments Chart and Commentary Ashland Ohio TeachingAmericanHistory org Retrieved April Jump up Madison Debates July The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Retrieved March Jump up to a b c Committees at the Constitutional Convention U S Constitution Online Retrieved April Jump up Madison Debates August The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Retrieved April Jump up Madison Debates September The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Retrieved April Jump up Vile John R The Constitutional Convention of A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of America's Founding Volume A M ABC CLIO p ISBN Retrieved October Jump up Madison Debates September The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Retrieved April Jump up Wright Jr Robert K MacGregor Jr Morris J Appendix A The Annapolis Convention Soldier Statesmen of the Constitution Washington D C United States Army Center of Military History p LCCN CMH Pub Jump up Resolution of Congress of September Submitting the Constitution to the Several States The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Retrieved August Jump up Resolution of the Congress of September Fixing Date for Election of a President and the Organization of the Government Under the Constitution in the City of New York via Avalon Project Jump up Manning John F Separation of Powers as Ordinary Interpretation Harvard Law Review Jump up Carpenter William Seal The Separation of Powers in the Eighteenth Century American Political Science Review Jump up Nielson Aaron April D C Circuit Reviewed The Baron Montesquieu Jump up National Archives and Records Administration National Archives Article on the Bill of Rights Retrieved December Jump up Kilpatrick James J ed The Constitution of the United States and Amendments Thereto Foreword by Denys P Myers Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government p i of foreword full citation needed Jump up See Jacobson v Massachusetts U S Although th e preamble indicates the general purposes for which the people ordained and established the Constitution it has never been regarded as the source of any substantive power conferred on the government of the United States or on any of its departments see also United States v Boyer F W D Mo The preamble never can be resorted to to enlarge the powers confided to the general government or any of its departments It cannot confer any power per se It can never amount by implication to an enlargement of any power expressly given It can never be the legitimate source of any implied power when otherwise withdrawn from the constitution Its true office is to expound the nature and extent and application of the powers actually conferred by the constitution and not substantively to create them quoting JOSEPH STORY COMMENTARIES ON THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES § internal quotation marks omitted Jump up Adler Gorman p Jump up to a b U S at Jump up to a b c d e f g h O'Connor Jump up FindLaw for legal professionals with links to United States Government Printing office official Web site Cornell Law School Emory Law School and U S Supreme Court decisions since Supplement Viewed November Archived January at the Wayback Machine Jump up England Trent Spalding Matthew Essays on Article V Amendments The Heritage Foundation Retrieved July Jump up Proposed Amendments Constitution Day Observance Events Clayton State University Jump up Lutz Donald Toward a Theory of Constitutional Amendment The American Political Science Review Jump up to a b The Constitutional Amendment Process National Archives and Records Administration Retrieved July Jump up Morison Samuel Eliot The Oxford History of the American People Oxford Oxford University Press p Jump up Lloyd Gordon The Six Stages of Ratification of the Constitution Stage I Now For the Bad News TeachingAmericanHistory org The Ashbrook Center at Ashland University Retrieved June Jump up to a b Spaulding Matthew Attestation Clause The Heritage Foundation Retrieved November Jump up Neale Thomas H The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment Contemporary Ratification Issues PDF Congressional Research Service Retrieved July Jump up Monk Linda Amendment I Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Fletcher v Haas DPW D Mass March Jump up Pierce John April Permanent Resident Aliens Have Second Amendment Rights Too Monachus Lex self published source Jump up Constitutional Law Casenotes full citation needed Jump up Jilson Cal American Government Political Development and Institutional Change full citation needed Jump up Shaman Jeffrey After Heller What Now for the Second Amendment Santa Clara Law Review Retrieved January full citation needed Jump up US Senate Annotated Constitution Retrieved January Jump up Monk Linda Amendment II Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Epstein Lee Walk Thomas G Constitutional Law for a Changing America Rights Liberties and Justice th ed CQ Press pp ISBN Jump up Moncure Jump up Monk Linda Amendment III Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment IV Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment V Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment VI Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment VII Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment VIII Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment IX Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment X Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Annotation Eleventh Amendment State Immunity FindLaw Retrieved May Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XI Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XVI www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XVIII www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XXI www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up The Emancipation Proclamation National Archives and Records Administration Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XIII Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XIV Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XV Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center
of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XIX www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XXIII www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XXIV www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XXVI www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XII Annenberg Classroom Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XVII www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up CRS LII Annotated Constitution Twentieth Amendment Jump up See Library of Cong Journals of the Continental Congress at Roscoe R Hill ed Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XX www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XXII www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XXV www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Monk Linda Amendment XXVII www annenbergclassroom org Philadelphia Pa Annenberg Classroom Retrieved August Jump up Capitol Questions C SPAN Archived from the original on May Retrieved May Jump up Morison Samuel Eliot The Oxford History of the American People Oxford Oxford University Press p Jump up Kilpatrick James J ed The Constitution of the United States and Amendments Thereto Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government pp Jump up Griffin Stephen M American Constitutionalism From Theory to Politics Princeton University Press p ISBN Jump up Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett pp Jump up to a b Pritchett p Jump up to a b Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett pp Jump up Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett pp Jump up to a b Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett pp Jump up to a b Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett p Jump up Pritchett pp Jump up Pritchett p Jump up to a b Wood Gordon S August Dusting off the Declaration The New York Review of Books Retrieved December Jump up Levinson p Jump up Levinson p Jump up Levinson p Jump up Billias xi xv Jump up Farber p Jump up Farber p Jump up Stacy p Jump up Malcolm p Jump up Qing Yu p Jump up The Declining Influence of the United States Constitution Journalist's Resource Harvard Kennedy School of Government Shorenstein Center on Media Politics and Public Policy April Retrieved April Jump up Law David S Versteeg Mila The Declining Influence of the United States Constitution New York University Law Review SSRN Freely accessible Jump up Expansion of Rights and Liberties The Right of Suffrage Online Exhibit The Charters of Freedom National Archives Retrieved April Jump up U S Voting Rights Infoplease Retrieved April Jump up Voting in Early America Colonial Williamsburg Spring Retrieved renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon April Jump up Foner Eric The Reconstruction Amendments Official Documents as Social History The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History Retrieved December subscription required help Jump up The Constitution The th Amendment National Archives and Records Administration Retrieved December Works cited Adler Mortimer Gorman William The American Testament for the Institute for Philosophical Research and the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies New York Praeger ISBN Billias George American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World A Global Perspective New York New York University Press ISBN Bowen Catherine First published Miracle at Philadelphia The Story of the Constitutional Convention May to September New York Little Brown ISBN Farber Daniel Lincoln's Constitution Chicago University of Chicago Press ISBN Levinson Sanford Pledging Faith in the Civil Religion Or Would You Sign the Constitution William Mary Law Review Retrieved December Maier Pauline Ratification The People Debate the Constitution New York Simon Schuster ISBN Malcolm George A Constitutional History of the Philippines American Bar Association Journal Moncure Thomas M Jr Who is the Militia The Virginia Ratification Convention and the Right to Bear Arms PDF Lincoln Law Review Retrieved November O'Connor Tom Constitutional Structure Retrieved November Pritchett C Herman The American Constitution New York McGraw Hill Qing Yu Li Dr Sun Yat Sen and the U S Constitution In Starr Joseph Barton The United States Constitution Its Birth Growth and Influence in Asia Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press ISBN Stacy Lee ed Mexico and the United States vol London Marshall Cavendish ISBN Wood Gordon The Creation of the American Republic Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press ISBN Further reading Bailyn Bernard ed The Debate on the Constitution Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches Articles and Letters During the Struggle for Ratification Part One September to February The Library of America Bailyn Bernard ed The Debate on the Constitution Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches Articles and Letters During the Struggle for Ratification Part Two January to August The Library of America ISBN X Bryce James viscount The American Commonwealth vol nd ed London Macmillan and Co pp et passim Casey Gregory Spring The Supreme Court and Myth An Empirical Investigation Law Society Review doi JSTOR Elliot Jonathan The Debates in the Several State Conventions of the Adoption of the Federal Constitution Vol Constitution Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation Journal of Federal Convention Vol State Conventions Massachusetts Connecticut New Hampshire New York Pennsylvania Maryland Vol Virginia Vol North and South Carolina Resolutions Tariffs Banks Debt Vol Debates in Congress Madison's Notes Misc Letters Ford Paul Leicester ed Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States Published During its Discussion by the People Brooklyn NY Pamphlets written between by Elbridge Gerry Noah Webster John Jay Melancthon Smith Pelatiah Werster Tench Coxe James Wilson John Dickinson Alexander Contee Hanson Edmund Randolph Richard Henry Lee George Mason and David Ramsay The essay attributed to Gerry was in fact written by Mercy Otis Warren Fritz Christian G American Sovereigns The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War Cambridge University Press Garvey John H ed Modern Constitutional Theory A Reader th ed full citation needed Hall Kermit The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States New York Oxford University Press Kaminski John P Saladino Gaspare J Leffler Richard Schoenleber Charles H Hogan Margaret A eds Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution Published volumes forthcoming volumes Most recent volume The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution Vol Ratification by the States New York No Madison The State Historical Society of Wisconsin ISBN Klos Stanley L President Who Forgotten Founders Pittsburgh PA Evisum p ISBN Kurland Philip B Lerner Ralph eds The Founders' Constitution University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund ISBN The work consists of extracts from the leading works of political theory history law and constitutional argument on which the Framers and their contemporaries drew and which they themselves produced Levy Leonard W Karst Kenneth L West John G eds Encyclopedia of the American Constitution New York Macmillan Mason Alpheus Thomas Stephenson Donald Grier eds American Constitutional Law Introductory Essays and Selected Cases th ed full citation needed McDonald Forrest Novus Ordo Seclorum The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution Lawrence University Press of Kansas ISBN Robertson David Brian The Original Compromise What the Constitutional Framers Were Really Thinking New York Oxford University Press Tribe Laurence H American Constitutional Law full citation needed Yale Law School The Avalon Project Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention The Avalon Project Yale Law School Retrieved May External links Find more about United States Constitution at Wikipedia's sister projectsMedia erica-boyer erica-eaton erica-havens erica-idol erica-lauren erika-bella from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks U S government sources Analysis and Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States legal analysis and interpretation of the Constitution based primarily on Supreme Court case law United States Constitution Library of Congress web guide to Constitution related primary documents and resources America's Founding Documents original text and articles exploring the Declaration of Independence Constitution and Bill of Rights Constitution of the United States original text of each clause in the Constitution with an accompanying explanation of its meaning and how that meaning has changed over time Non governmental sources Audio reading of the Constitution in MP format provided by the University of Chicago Law School Mobile friendly version of the Constitution National Constitution Center hide v t e United States Constitution Text via Wikisource Preamble and Articles I VII Amendments Amendments Unsuccessful Proposed Amendments Debates in State Conventions on the Adoption of the Constitution Preamble and articles Preamble I II III IV V VI VII Amendments Ratified Bill of Rights Others Pending Congressional Apportionment Titles of Nobility Corwin Amendment Child Labor Repealed Eighteenth Amendment Unsuccessful Equal Rights District of Columbia Voting Rights List of Amendments Bill of Rights Amendments Reconstruction Amendments Amendments Amendment proposals in Congress Convention to propose amendments State ratifying conventions Formation History Articles of Confederation Mount Vernon Conference Annapolis Convention Philadelphia Convention Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Connecticut Compromise Three Fifths Compromise Committee of Detail Signing Independence Hall Syng inkstand The Federalist Papers Anti Federalist Papers Massachusetts Compromise Virginia Ratifying Convention Hillsborough Convention Drafting and ratification timeline Clauses Appointments Appropriations Assistance of Counsel Bill of credit Case or Controversy Citizenship Commerce Compact Compulsory Process Confrontation Contract Copyright and Patent Double Jeopardy Due Process Equal Protection Establishment Exceptions Excessive Bail Ex post facto Extradition Free Exercise Free Speech Fugitive Slave Full Faith and Credit General Welfare Guarantee Impeachment Import Export Ineligibility Militia Natural born citizen Necessary and Proper New States No Religious Test Oath or Affirmation Origination Petition Postal Presentment Privileges and Immunities Privileges or Immunities Recommendation Self Incrimination Speech or Debate Speedy Trial State of the Union Supremacy Suspension Take Care Takings Taxing and Spending Territorial Title of Nobility Treaty Trial by Jury Vesting Vicinage War Powers List of clauses Interpretation Concurrent powers Congressional enforcement Constitutional law Criminal procedure Criminal sentencing Dormant Commerce Clause Enumerated powers Equal footing Executive privilege Incorporation of the Bill of Rights Judicial review Nondelegation doctrine Preemption Saxbe fix Separation of church and state Separation of powers Taxation power Unitary executive theory Display and legacy National Archives Charters of Freedom Rotunda Independence Mall Constitution Day Constitution Gardens National Constitution Center Scene at the Signing of the Constitution painting A More Perfect Union film Worldwide influence US Government Portal • Law Portal • Wikipedia book show v t e Historical documents of the United States show v t e James Madison Category show v t e United States articles show v t e Constitutions of states and dependencies in the Americas Americas orthographic projection svg Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF LCCN n GND BNF cb data The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States a republic in North America composed of states one district Washington D C the nation's capital and several territories The federal government is composed of three distinct branches legislative executive and judicial whose powers are vested by the U S

Constitution in the Congress the President and the federal courts including the Supreme Court respectively The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of Congress including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court Contents hide Naming History Legislative branch Makeup of Congress House of Representatives Senate Different powers Impeachment of federal officers Congressional procedures Powers of Congress Congressional oversight Executive branch President Vice President Cabinet executive departments and agencies Judicial branch Overview of the federal judiciary Relationships between state and federal courts Elections and voting State tribal and local governments See also References Bibliography External links Naming The full name of the republic is United States of America No other name appears in the Constitution and this is the name that appears on money in treaties and in legal cases to which it is a party e g Charles T Schenck v United States The evie-delatosso fabiana-venturi faith-stevens fallon fanny-garreau fanny-steel terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in official documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively In casual conversation or writing the term Federal Government is often used and the term National Government is sometimes used The terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government e g Federal Bureau of Investigation National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration etc Because the seat of government is in Washington D C Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government History The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution The government was formed in making the United States one of the world's first if not the first modern national constitutional republics The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism in which power is shared between the federal government and state governments The interpretation and execution of these principles including what powers the federal government should have and how those powers can be exercised have been debated ever since the adoption of the Constitution Some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals the states or other recognized entities Since the American Civil War the powers of the federal government have generally expanded greatly although there have been periods since that time of legislative branch dominance e g the decades immediately following the Civil War or when states' rights proponents have succeeded in limiting federal power through legislative action executive prerogative or by constitutional interpretation by the courts One of the theoretical pillars of the United States Constitution is the idea of checks and balances among the powers and responsibilities of the three branches of American government the executive the legislative and the judiciary For example while the legislative Congress has the power to create law the executive President can veto any legislation an act which in turn can be overridden by Congress The President nominates judges to the nation's highest judiciary authority Supreme Court but those nominees must be approved by Congress The Supreme Court in its turn has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress These and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below Legislative branch Main article United States Congress Seal of the U S Congress The United States Congress is the legislative branch of the federal government It is bicameral comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate Makeup of Congress House of Representatives The seats of the House grouped by state The House currently consists of voting members each of whom represents a congressional district The number of representatives each state has in the House is based on each state's population as determined in the most recent United States Census All representatives serve a two year term Each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House In order to be elected as a representative an individual must be at least years of age must have been a U S citizen for at least seven years and must live in the state that he or she represents There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve In addition to the voting members there are six non voting members consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner There is one delegate each from the District of Columbia Guam the Virgin Islands American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the resident commissioner from Puerto Rico Senate In contrast the Senate is made up of two senators from each state regardless of population There are currently senators two from each of the states who each serve six year terms Approximately one third of the Senate stands for election every two years

Different powers The House and Senate each have particular exclusive powers For example the Senate must approve give advice and consent to many important Presidential appointments including cabinet officers federal judges including nominees to the Supreme Court department secretaries heads of federal executive branch departments U S military and naval officers and ambassadors to foreign countries All legislative bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives The approval of both chambers is required to pass any legislation which then may only become law by being signed by the President or if the President vetoes the bill both houses of Congress then re pass the bill but by a two thirds majority of each chamber in which case the bill becomes law without the President's signature The powers of Congress are limited to those enumerated in the Constitution all other powers are reserved to the states and the people The Constitution also includes the Necessary and Proper Clause which grants Congress the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers Members of the House and Senate are elected by first past the post voting in every state except Louisiana and Georgia which have runoffs Impeachment of federal officers Congress has the power to remove the President federal judges and other federal officers from office The House of Representatives and Senate have separate roles in this process The House must first vote to impeach the official Then a trial is held in the Senate to decide whether the official should be removed from office Although two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton neither of them was removed following trial in the Senate Congressional procedures Article I Section paragraph of the U S Constitution gives each chamber the power to determine the rules of its proceedings From this provision were created congressional committees which do the work of drafting legislation vivien-martines wendi-white wendy-divine whitney-banks whitney-fears and conducting congressional investigations into national matters The th Congress had standing committees in the House and in the Senate plus four joint permanent committees with members from both houses overseeing the Library of Congress printing taxation and the economy In addition each house may name special or select committees to study specific problems Today much of the congressional workload is borne by subcommittees of which there are some Powers of Congress Main article Article One of the United States Constitution The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress The Constitution grants numerous powers to Congress Enumerated in Article I Section these include the powers to levy and collect taxes to coin money and regulate its value provide for punishment for counterfeiting establish post offices and roads issue patents create federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court combat piracies and felonies declare war raise and support armies provide and maintain a navy make rules for the regulation of land and naval forces provide for arm and discipline the militia exercise exclusive legislation in the District of Columbia and to make laws necessary to properly execute powers Over the two centuries since the United States was formed many disputes have arisen over the limits on the powers of the federal government These disputes have often been the subject of lawsuits that have ultimately been decided by the United States Supreme Court Congressional oversight Main article Congressional oversight Congressional oversight is intended to prevent waste and fraud protect civil liberties and individual rights ensure executive compliance with the law gather information for making laws and educating the public and evaluate executive performance It applies to cabinet departments executive agencies regulatory commissions and the presidency Congress's oversight function takes many forms Committee inquiries and hearings Formal consultations with and reports from the President Senate advice and consent for presidential nominations and for treaties House impeachment proceedings and subsequent Senate trials House and Senate proceedings under the th Amendment in the event that the President becomes disabled or the office of the Vice President falls vacant Informal meetings between legislators and executive officials Congressional membership each state is allocated a number of seats based on its representation or ostensible representation in the case of D C in the House of Representatives Each state is allocated two Senators regardless of its population As of January the District of Columbia elects a non voting representative to the House of Representatives along with American Samoa the U S Virgin Islands Guam Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands Executive branch See also Article Two of the United States Constitution and United States Executive Orders The executive power in the federal government is vested in the President of the United States although power is often delegated to the Cabinet members and other officials The President and Vice President are elected as running mates by the Electoral College for which each state as well as the District of Columbia is allocated a number of seats based on its representation or ostensible representation in the case of D C in both houses of Congress The President is limited to a maximum of two four year terms If the President has already served two years or more of a term to which some other person was elected he may only serve one more additional four year term President Main article President of the United States Seal of the U S President The executive branch consists of the President and those to whom the President's powers are delegated The President is both the head of state and government as well as the military commander in chief and chief diplomat The President according to the Constitution must take care that the laws be faithfully executed and preserve protect and defend the Constitution The President presides over the executive branch of the federal government an organization numbering about million people including million active duty military personnel and postal service employees The President may sign legislation passed by Congress into law or may veto it preventing it from becoming law unless two thirds of both houses of Congress vote to override the veto The President may unilaterally sign treaties with foreign nations However ratification of international treaties requires a two thirds majority vote in the Senate The President may be impeached by a majority in the House and removed from office by a two thirds majority in the Senate for treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors The President may not dissolve Congress or call special elections but does have the power to pardon or release criminals convicted of offenses against the federal government except in cases of impeachment enact executive orders and with the consent of the Senate appoint Supreme Court justices and federal judges Vice President Main article Vice President of the United States Seal of the U S Vice President

The Vice President is the second highest official in rank of the federal government The office of the Vice President's duties and powers are established in the legislative branch of the federal government under Article Section Clauses and as the President of the Senate By virtue of this on going role he or she is the head of the Senate In that capacity the Vice President is allowed to vote in the Senate but only when necessary to break a tie vote Pursuant to the Twelfth Amendment the Vice President presides over the joint session of Congress when it convenes to count the vote of the Electoral College As first in the U S presidential line of succession the Vice President duties and powers move to the executive branch when becoming President upon the death resignation or removal of the President which has happened nine times in U S history Lastly in the case of a Twenty fifth Amendment succession event Vice President would become Acting President assuming all of the powers and duties of President except being designated as President Accordingly by circumstances the Constitution designates the Vice President as routinely in the legislative branch or succeeding to the executive branch as President or possibly being in both as Acting President pursuant to the Twenty fifth Amendment Because of circumstances the overlapping nature of the duties and powers attributed to the office the title of the office and other matters such has generated a spirited scholarly dispute regarding attaching an exclusive branch designation to the office of Vice President Cabinet executive departments and agencies Main articles Cabinet of the United States United States federal executive departments and List of federal agencies in the United States The day to day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments created by Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs The heads of the departments chosen by the President and approved with the advice and kylie-haze kylie-wylde kym-wilde kyoto-sun lachelle-marie consent of the U S Senate form a council of advisers generally known as the President's Cabinet In addition to departments a number of staff organizations are grouped into the Executive Office of the President These include the White House staff the National Security Council the Office of Management and Budget the Council of Economic Advisers the Council on Environmental Quality the Office of the U S Trade Representative the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the Office of Science and Technology Policy The employees in these United States government agencies are called federal civil servants There are also independent agencies such as the United States Postal Service the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA the Central Intelligence Agency CIA the Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Agency for International Development In addition there are government owned corporations such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the National Railroad
Passenger Corporation Judicial branch Main articles Federal judiciary of the United States and United States federal courts See also Article Three of the United States Constitution The Judiciary explains and applies the laws This branch does this by hearing and eventually making decisions on various legal cases Overview of the federal judiciary Seal of the U S Supreme Court Article III section I of the Constitution establishes the Supreme Court of the United States and authorizes the United States Congress to establish inferior i e lower courts as their need shall arise Section I also establishes a lifetime tenure for all federal judges and states that their compensation may not be diminished during their time in office Article II section II establishes that all federal judges are to be appointed by the president and confirmed by the United States Senate The Judiciary Act of subdivided the nation jurisdictionally into judicial districts and created federal courts for each district The three tiered structure of this act established the basic structure of the national judiciary the Supreme Court courts of appeals district courts and two courts of special jurisdiction Congress retains the power to re organize or even abolish federal courts lower than the Supreme Court The U S Supreme Court adjudicates cases and controversies matters pertaining to the federal government disputes between states and interpretation of the United States Constitution and in general can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and decisions The United States Constitution does not specifically mention the power of judicial review the power to declare a law unconstitutional The power of judicial review was asserted by Chief Justice Marshall in the landmark Supreme Court Case Marbury v Madison There have been instances in the past where such declarations have been ignored by the other two branches Below the U S Supreme Court are the United States Courts diana-holt diana-kisabonyi diana-siefert diana-stevenson diane-dubois diane-richards diane-sloan of Appeals and below them in turn are the United States District Courts which are the general trial courts for federal law and for certain controversies between litigants who are not deemed citizens of the same state diversity jurisdiction There are three levels of federal courts with general jurisdiction meaning that these courts handle criminal cases and civil lawsuits between individuals Other courts such as the bankruptcy courts and the Tax Court are specialized courts handling only certain kinds of cases subject matter jurisdiction The Bankruptcy Courts are under the supervision of the district courts and as such are not considered part of the Article III judiciary and also as such their judges do not have lifetime tenure nor are they Constitutionally exempt from diminution of their remuneration Also the Tax Court is not an Article III court but is instead an Article I Court The district courts are the trial courts wherein cases that are considered under the Judicial Code Title United States Code consistent with the jurisdictional precepts of federal question jurisdiction and diversity jurisdiction and pendent jurisdiction can be filed and decided The district courts can also hear cases under removal jurisdiction wherein a case brought in State court meets the requirements for diversity jurisdiction and one party litigant chooses to remove the case from state court to federal court The United States Courts of Appeals are appellate courts that hear appeals of cases decided by the district courts and some direct appeals from administrative agencies and some interlocutory appeals The U S Supreme Court hears appeals from the decisions of the courts of appeals or state supreme courts and in addition has original jurisdiction over a few cases The judicial power extends to cases arising under the Constitution an Act of Congress a U S treaty cases affecting ambassadors ministers and consuls of foreign countries in the U S cases and controversies to which the federal government is a party controversies between states or their citizens and foreign nations or their citizens or subjects and bankruptcy cases collectively federal question jurisdiction The Eleventh Amendment removed from federal jurisdiction cases in which citizens of one state were the plaintiffs and the government of another state was the defendant It did not disturb federal jurisdiction in cases in which a state government is a plaintiff and a citizen of another state the defendant The power of the federal courts extends both to civil actions for damages and other redress and to criminal cases arising under federal law The interplay of the Supremacy Clause and Article III has resulted in a complex set of relationships between state and federal courts Federal courts can sometimes hear cases arising under state law pursuant to diversity jurisdiction state courts can decide certain matters involving federal law and a handful of federal claims are primarily reserved by federal statute to the state courts for example those arising from the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of Both court systems thus can be said to have exclusive jurisdiction in some areas and concurrent jurisdiction in others The U S Constitution safeguards judicial independence by providing that federal judges shall hold office during good behavior in practice this usually means they serve until they die retire or resign A judge who commits an offense while in office may be impeached in the same way as the President or other officials of the federal government U S judges are appointed by the President subject to confirmation by the Senate Another Constitutional provision prohibits Congress from reducing the pay of any Article III judge Congress is able to set a lower salary for all future judges that take office after the reduction but may not decrease the rate of pay for judges already in office Relationships between state and federal courts Separate from but not entirely independent of this federal court system are the court systems of each state each dealing with in addition to federal law when not deemed preempted a state's own laws and having its own court rules and procedures Although state governments and the federal government are legally dual sovereigns the Supreme Court of the United States is in many cases the appellate court from the State Supreme Courts e g absent the Court countenancing the applicability of the doctrine of adequate and independent State grounds The Supreme Courts of each state are by this doctrine the final authority on the interpretation of the applicable state's laws and Constitution Many state constitution provisions are equal in breadth to those of the U S Constitution but are considered parallel thus where for example the right to privacy pursuant to a state constitution is broader than the federal right to privacy and the asserted ground is explicitly held to be independent the question can be finally decided in a State Supreme Court the U S Supreme Court will decline to take jurisdiction A State Supreme Court other than of its own accord is bound only by the U S Supreme Court's interpretation of federal law but is not bound by interpretation of federal law by the federal court of appeals for the federal circuit in which the state is included or even the federal district courts located in the state a result of the dual sovereigns concept Conversely a federal district court hearing a matter involving only a question of state law usually through diversity jurisdiction must apply the substantive law of the state in which the court sits a result of the application of the Erie Doctrine however at the same time the case is heard under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and the Federal Rules of Evidence instead of state procedural rules that is the application of the Erie Doctrine only extends to a requirement that a federal court asserting diversity jurisdiction apply substantive state law but not procedural state law which may be different Together the laws of the federal and state governments form U S law
Elections and voting Main article Elections in the United States Diagram of the Federal Government and American Union Suffrage commonly known as the ability to vote has changed significantly over time In the early years of the United States voting was considered a matter for state governments and was commonly restricted to white men who owned land Direct elections were mostly held only for the U S House of Representatives and state legislatures although what specific bodies were elected by the electorate varied from state to state Under this original system both senators representing each state in the U S Senate were chosen by a majority vote of the state legislature Since the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in members of both houses of Congress have been directly elected Today U S citizens have almost universal suffrage under equal protection of the laws from the age of regardless of race gender or wealth The only significant exception to this is the disenfranchisement of convicted felons and in some states former felons as well Under the U S Constitution the national representation of U S territories and the federal district of Washington D C in Congress is limited while residents of the District of Columbia are subject to federal laws and federal taxes their only congressional representative is a non voting delegate however they have been allowed to participate in presidential elections since March Residents of U S territories have varying rights for example only some residents of Puerto Rico pay federal income taxes though all residents must pay all other federal taxes including import export taxes federal commodity taxes and federal payroll taxes including Social Security and Medicare All federal laws that are not locally inapplicable are automatically the law of the land in Puerto Rico but their current representation in the U S Congress is in the form of a Resident Commissioner a nonvoting delegate State tribal and local governments Main articles State governments of the United States Tribal sovereignty in the United States and Local government in the United States The states of the United States as divided into counties or in Louisiana and Alaska parishes and boroughs respectively Alaska and Hawaii are not to scale and the Aleutian and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands have been omitted The state governments tend to have the greatest influence over most Americans' daily lives The Tenth Amendment prohibits the federal government from exercising any power not delegated to it by the States in the Constitution as a result states handle the majority of issues most relevant to individuals within their jurisdiction Because state governments are not authorized to print currency they generally have to raise revenue through either taxes or bonds As a result state governments tend to impose severe budget cuts or raise taxes any time the economy is faltering Each state has its own written constitution government and code of laws The Constitution stipulates only that each state must have a Republican Government Therefore there are often great differences in law and procedure between individual states concerning issues such as property crime health and education amongst others The highest elected official of each state is the Governor Each state also has an elected state legislature bicameralism is a feature of every state except Nebraska whose members represent the voters of the state Each state maintains its own state court system In some states supreme and lower court justices are elected by the people in others they are appointed as they are in the federal system As a result of the Supreme Court case Worcester v Georgia American Indian tribes are considered domestic dependent nations that operate as sovereign governments subject to federal authority but in some cases outside of the jurisdiction of state governments Hundreds of laws executive orders and court cases have modified the governmental status of tribes vis à vis individual states but the two have continued to be recognized as separate bodies Tribal governments vary in elena-berkova elena-maria-ricci eleonore-melzer elisabeth-bure elis-black elise elise-di-medici robustness from a simple council used to manage all aspects of tribal affairs to large and complex bureaucracies with several branches of government Tribes are currently encouraged to form their own governments with power resting in elected tribal councils elected tribal chairpersons or religiously appointed leaders as is the case with pueblos Tribal citizenship and voting rights are typically restricted to individuals of native descent but tribes are free to set whatever citizenship requirements they wish The institutions that are responsible for local government within states are typically town city or county boards water management districts fire management districts library districts and other similar governmental units which make laws that affect their particular area These laws concern issues such as traffic the sale of alcohol and the keeping of animals The highest elected official of a town or city is usually the mayor In New England towns operate in a direct democratic fashion and in some states such as Rhode Island Connecticut and some parts of Massachusetts counties have little or no power existing only as geographic distinctions In other areas county governments have more power such as to collect taxes and maintain law enforcement agencies See also Government of the United States portal PresidentCabinet Executive order Federal executive departments President's Executive Office Line item veto CourtsBankruptcy courts Courts of appeals District courts Federal courts Federal judicial circuit Federal judicial district Supreme Court LawConstitution Governmental designations for places U S Code U S Law AgenciesNote Most agencies are executive but a few are legislative or judicial Federal agencies Independent agencies States and territoriesPolitical divisions U S states U S territory Works and websitesCopyright status of work by the U S government U S Government Web Portal for Businesses U S Government Web Portal for Citizens References Jump up Wood p Jump up 'The Influence of State Politics in Expanding Federal
Power ' Henry Jones Ford 'Proceedings of the American Political Science Association Vol Fifth Annual Meeting ' Jstor org Retrieved on March Jump up Judge Rules Favorably in Pennsylvania BRAC Suit Associated Press August Jump up 'The Legislative Branch' Retrieved on January Jump up US House Official Website House gov Retrieved on August Jump up Kaiser Frederick M January Congressional Oversight PDF Congressional Research Service Retrieved July Jump up to a b c Article II Constitution of the United States of America Jump up U S C §§ Jump up Barack Obama April Delegation of Certain Authority Under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year United States Archived from the original on Retrieved July Jump up Amendment XXIII to the United States Constitution Jump up Amendment XXII to the United States Constitution Jump up Goldstein Joel K The New Constitutional Vice Presidency Wake Forest Law Review Winston Salem NC Wake Forest Law Review Association Inc Jump up Reynolds Glenn Harlan Is Dick Cheney Unconstitutional Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy Chicago Northwestern University School of Law Jump up Federal tribunals in the United States Jump up United States Tax Court Jump up Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Jump up Twenty sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution Jump up Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Jump up Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Jump up Twenty fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution Jump up Twenty third Amendment to the United States Constitution Jump up Contrary to common misconception residents of Puerto Rico do pay U S federal taxes customs taxes which are subsequently returned to the Puerto Rico Treasury See Department of the Interior Office of Insular Affairs Archived June at the Wayback Machine import export taxes See Stanford wellsphere com federal commodity taxes See Stanford wellsphere com social security taxes See IRS gov etc Residents pay federal payroll taxes such as Social Security See IRS gov and Medicare See Reuters com as well as Commonwealth of Puerto Rico income taxes See Puertorico herald com and HTRCPA com Archived April at the Wayback Machine All federal employees See Heritage org those who do business with the federal government See MCVPR com Puerto Rico based corporations that intend to send funds to the U S See Page line and some others For example Puerto Rican residents that are members of the U S military See Heritage org and Puerto Rico residents who earned income from sources outside Puerto Rico See pp also pay federal income taxes In addition because the cutoff point for income taxation is lower than that of the U S IRS code and because the per capita income in Puerto Rico is much lower than the average per capita income on the mainland more Puerto Rico residents pay income taxes to the local taxation authority than if the IRS code were applied to the island This occurs because the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico government has a wider set of responsibilities than do U S State and local governments See GAO gov As residents of Puerto Rico pay into Social Security Puerto Ricans are eligible for Social Security benefits upon retirement but are excluded from the Supplemental Security Income SSI Commonwealth of Puerto Rico residents unlike residents of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and residents of the States do not receive the SSI See Socialsecurity gov and the island actually receives less than of the Medicaid funding it would normally receive if it were a U S state However Medicare providers receive less than full state like reimbursements for services rendered to beneficiaries in Puerto Rico even though the latter paid fully into the system See p It has also been estimated See Eagleforum org that because the population of the island is greater than that of of the states if it were a state Puerto Rico would have six to eight seats in the House in addition to the two seats in the Senate See Eagleforum org CRF USA org and Thomas gov Note that for the later the official US Congress database website you will need to resubmit a query The document in question is called House Report Puerto Rico Democracy Act of These are the steps to follow Thomas gov > Committee Reports > > drop down Word Phrase and pick Report Number > type next to Report Number This will provide the document House Report Puerto Rico Democracy Act of then from the Table of Contents choose Background and need for legislation Another misconception is that the import export taxes collected by the U S on products manufactured in Puerto Rico are all returned to the Puerto Rico Treasury This is not the case Such import export taxes are returned only for rum products and even then the US Treasury keeps a portion of those taxes See the House Report Puerto Rico Democracy Act of mentioned above Jump up A brief overview of state fiscal conditions and the effects of federal policies on state budgets PDF Center on Budget and Policy Priorities May Retrieved July Bibliography Wood Gordon S The creation of the American Republic ginger-jay ginger-lee ginger-lynn ginny-noack giovanna gisela-schwarz Gordon S Wood Institute of Early American History and Culture Williamsburg Va p ISBN External links Wikiquote has quotations related to Federal government of the United States Wikiversity has learning resources about School Political science Wikiversity has learning resources about Topic American government USA gov the official U S Government portal United States Government a research information guide from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Library Government Information Directories and Manuals web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado Boulder Libraries show v t e United States articles show v t e State governments of the United States show v t e United States Constitution show v t e Law of the United States Scales of justice show v t e Governments of North America Authority control ISNI The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA pronounced 'no like Noah is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere NOAA warns of dangerous weather charts seas guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources and conducts research to improve understanding and stewardship of the environment In addition to its civilian employees over as of NOAA research and operations are supported by uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps The Acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the Department of Commerce and the agency's interim administrator has been Benjamin Friedman since the end of the Obama administration on January Contents hide Purpose and function History Organizational structure National Weather Service National Ocean Service National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research National Geodetic Survey National Integrated Drought Information System Office of Program Planning and Integration Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change Flag See also References External links Purpose and function edit Two NOAA WP D Orions NOAA plays several specific roles in society the benefits of which extend beyond the U S economy and into the larger global community A Supplier of Environmental Information Products NOAA supplies information to its customers and partners pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere This is clearly manifest in the production of weather warnings and forecasts through the National Weather Service but NOAA's information products extend to climate ecosystems and commerce as well A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services NOAA is also the steward of U S coastal and marine environments In coordination with federal state local tribal and international authorities NOAA manages the use of these environments regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species A Leader in Applied Scientific Research NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above ecosystems climate weather and water and commerce and transportation The five fundamental activities are Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time Engaging advising and informing the public and partner organizations with important information Managing resources for the betterment of society economy and environment History edit Seal of the NOAA Commissioned Corps NOAA was formed on October after Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need … for better protection of life and property from natural hazards … for a better understanding of the total environment … and for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources NOAA formed a conglomeration of several existing agencies michelle-greco michelle-maren michelle-maylene michelle-monroe micki-lynn that were among the oldest in the federal government They were the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey formed in the Weather Bureau formed in Geodetic Survey and Weather Service had been combined by a consolidation into the Environmental Science Services Administration ESSA and the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries formed in NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No of In NOAA celebrated years of service with its ties to the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Organizational structure edit NOAA Headquarters in Silver Spring Maryland The NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps is a uniformed service of men and women who operate NOAA ships and aircraft and serve in scientific and administrative posts NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service NESDIS the National Marine Fisheries Service NMFS the National Ocean Service NOS the National Weather Service NWS the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research OAR and the Office of Marine Aviation Operations OMAO and in addition more than a dozen staff offices including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology the NOAA Central Library the Office of Program Planning and Integration PPI National Weather Service edit Seal of the National Weather Service The National Weather Service NWS is tasked with providing weather hydrologic and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States its territories adjacent waters and ocean areas for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy This is done through a collection of national and regional centers river forecast centers RFCs and more than local weather forecast offices WFOs They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts advisories watches and warnings on a daily basis They issue more than weather and river forecasts and more than severe weather warnings annually NOAA data is also relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion citation needed The NWS operates NEXRAD a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts severe weather statements watches and warnings hours a day National Ocean Service edit The National Ocean Service NOS focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe healthy and productive NOS scientists natural resource managers and specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities and conserving marine and coastal places citation needed The National Ocean Service is composed of eight program offices the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services the Coastal Services Center the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science the Office of Coast Survey the Office of National Geodetic Survey the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management and the Office of Response and Restoration There are two NOS programs namely the Mussel Watch Contaminant Monitoring Program and the NOAA Integrated Ocean Observing System IOOS and two staff offices the International Program Office and the Management and Budget Office National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service edit NOAA engineer at work The National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service NESDIS was created by NOAA to operate and manage the US environmental satellite programs and manage NWS data and those of other government agencies and departments citation needed NESDIS's National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI archives data collected by the NOAA U S Navy U S Air Force the Federal Aviation Administration and meteorological services around the world and comprises the Center for Weather and Climate previously NOAA's National Climatic Data Center and the Center for Coasts Oceans and Geophysics created by a merger of NOAA's National Coastal Data Development Center NCDDC National Oceanographic Data Center NODC and the National Geophysical Data Center NGDC In TIROS NOAA's first owned and operated geostationary satellite was launched Since NESDIS has managed polar orbiting satellites POES and since it has operated geosynchronous satellites GOES In NOAA's first polar orbiting environmental satellite was launched Current operational satellites include NOAA NOAA NOAA GOES GOES GOES Jason and DSCOVR In NOAA assumed operational responsibility for Landsat satellite system citation needed Since May NESIDS has operated the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DMSP satellites on behalf of the Air Force Weather Agency citation needed New generations of satellites are developed to succeed the current polar orbiting and geosynchronous satellites the Joint Polar Satellite System and GOES R which is scheduled for launch in March citation needed NESDIS runs the Office of Projects Planning and Analysis OPPA formerly the Office of Systems Development the Office of Satellite Ground Systems formerly the Office of Satellite Operations the Office of Satellite and Project Operations the Center for Satellite Applications and Research STAR the Joint Polar Satellite System Program Office the GOES R Program Office the International Interagency Affairs Office the Office of Space Commercialization and the Office of System Architecture and Advanced Planning National Marine Fisheries Service edit The National Marine Fisheries Service NMFS was initiated in with a primary goal of the research protection management and restoration of commercial fisheries and protected species The NMFS operates six fisheries science centers throughout the United States which are the sites of research and management on marine resources The NMFS also operates the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Office for Law Enforcement in Silver Spring Maryland which is the primary site of marine resource law enforcement Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research edit Main article Office of Oceanic janet-jacme janey-robbins jasmine-delatori jayden-simone jaylyn-rose jayna-woods jazella-moore jazmin-luna-gold and Atmospheric Research NOAA's research conducted through the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research OAR is the driving force behind NOAA environmental products and services that protect life and property and promote economic growth Research conducted in OAR laboratories and by extramural programs focuses on enhancing our understanding of environmental phenomena such as tornadoes hurricanes climate variability solar flares changes in the ozone air pollution transport and dispersion El Niño La Niña events fisheries productivity ocean currents deep sea thermal vents and coastal ecosystem health NOAA research also develops innovative technologies and observing systems The NOAA Research network consists of seven internal research laboratories extramural research at Sea Grant university and research programs six undersea research centers a research grants program through the Climate Program Office and cooperative institutes with academia Through NOAA and its academic partners thousands of scientists engineers technicians and graduate students participate in furthering our knowledge of natural phenomena that affect the lives of us all citation needed The Air Resources Laboratory ARL is one of the laboratories in the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research It studies processes and develops models relating to climate and air quality including the transport dispersion transformation and removal of pollutants from the ambient atmosphere The emphasis of the ARL's work is on data interpretation technology development and transfer The specific goal of ARL research is to improve and eventually to institutionalize prediction of trends dispersion of air pollutant plumes air quality atmospheric deposition and related variables citation needed The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory AOML is part of NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research located in Miami Florida AOML's research spans hurricanes coastal ecosystems oceans and human health climate studies global carbon systems and ocean observations AOML's organizational structure consists of an Office of the Director and three scientific research divisions Physical Oceanography Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems and Hurricane Research The Office of the Director oversees the Laboratory's scientific programs as well as its financial administrative computer outreach education and facility management services Research programs are augmented by the Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies CIMAS a joint enterprise with the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science CIMAS enables AOML and university scientists to collaborate on research areas of mutual interest and facilitates the participation of students and visiting scientists AOML is a member of a unique community of marine research and educational institutions located on Virginia Key in Miami Florida citation needed In the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory PMEL deployed the first successful moored equatorial current meter the beginning of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean TAO array In the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere program TOGA program began National Geodetic Survey edit The National Geodetic Survey NGS is the primary surveying organization in the United States citation needed National Integrated Drought Information System edit The National Integrated Drought Information System is a program within NOAA with an interagency mandate to coordinate and integrate drought research building upon existing federal tribal state and local partnerships in support of creating a national drought early warning information system citation needed Office of Program Planning and Integration edit The Office of Program Planning and Integration PPI was established in June as the focus for a new corporate management culture at NOAA PPI was created to address the needs to foster strategic management among NOAA Line and Staff Offices Goal Teams Programs and Councils support planning activities through greater opportunities for active participation of employees stakeholders and
partners build decision support systems based on the goals and outcomes set in NOAA's strategic plan and guide managers and employees on program and performance management the National Environmental Policy Act and socioeconomic analysis citation needed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change edit Since the organization has hosted the senior staff and recent chair Susan Solomon of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's working group on climate science Flag edit The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration flag flown as a distinguishing mark by all commissioned NOAA ships The NOAA flag is a modification of the flag of one of its predecessor organizations the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey The Coast and Geodetic Survey's flag authorized in and in use until was blue with a white circle centered in it and a red triangle centered within the circle It symbolized the use of triangulation in surveying and was flown by ships of the Survey citation needed When NOAA was established in and the Coast and Geodetic Survey's assets became a part of NOAA NOAA based its own flag on that of the Coast and Geodetic Survey The NOAA flag is in essence the Coast and Geodetic Survey flag with the NOAA logo a circle divided by the silhouette of a seabird into an upper dark blue and a lower light blue section but with the NOAA legend omitted centered within the red triangle NOAA ships in commission display the NOAA flag those with only one mast fly it immediately beneath the ship's commissioning pennant or the personal flag of a civilian official or flag officer if one is aboard the ship while multimasted vessels fly it at the masthead of the forwardmost mast NOAA ships fly the same ensign as United States Navy ships but fly the NOAA flag as a distinguishing mark to differentiate themselves from Navy ships See also edit Underwater diving portal Center for Environmental Technology CET Climate Mirror Federation of Earth Science Information Partners ESIP Federation List of auxiliaries of the United States Navy Marine Mammal Protection Act of Minerals Management Service NOAA's Environmental Real time Observation Network NOAA's Virtual World Program Office of Naval Research Title of the Code of Federal Regulations United States Naval Research Laboratory University National Oceanographic Laboratory System Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Weather Modification Operations and Research Board References edit Jump up Celebrating Years NOAA website Jump up About Our Agency National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Noaa gov Retrieved Jump up BestPlacesToWork org Agency Report Best Places to Work Retrieved Jul Jump up http www noaa gov leadership benjamin friedman Jump up BestPlacesToWork org Agency Report Best Places to Work Retrieved Jul Jump up About the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA PDF Retrieved Jump up New Priorities for the st Century NOAA STRATEGIC PLAN FY FY PDF oceanservice noaa gov U S Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Program Planning and Integration NOAA Strategic Planning samueline-de-la-rosa sandra-cardinale sandra-de-marco Retrieved May Jump up Reorganization Plan NOAA Central Library Lib noaa gov Retrieved Jump up Shea Eileen A History of NOAA Department of Commerce Historical Council Retrieved May Jump up to a b Organization National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Noaa gov Retrieved Jump up Service US Department of Commerce NOAA National Weather NOAA Weather Radio www weather gov Retrieved Jump up http tidesandcurrents noaa gov Jump up NOAA Office for Coastal Management ADS Group NOAA Office for Coastal Management Csc noaa gov Retrieved Jump up Home NOAA Tides Currents Tidesandcurrents noaa gov Retrieved Jump up Nautical Charts Pubs Nauticalcharts noaa gov Retrieved Jump up National Geodetic Survey Home Geodesy noaa gov Retrieved Jump up NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries Sanctuaries noaa gov Retrieved Jump up Archived copy Archived from the original on October Retrieved October Jump up Our role is stewardship our product is science Response restoration noaa gov Retrieved Jump up NOAA NESDIS Office of Systems Development Homepage Osd noaa gov Retrieved Jump up Archived copy Archived from the original on November Retrieved July Jump up Archived copy Archived from the original on May Retrieved July Jump up NOAA Star Center for Satellite Applications and Research Star nesdis noaa gov Retrieved Jump up Archived copy Archived from the original on July Retrieved July Jump up Office of Space Commerce Office of Space Commerce Helping U S businesses use the unique medium of space to benefit our economy Space commerce gov Retrieved Jump up Turner D B Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates an introduction to dispersion modeling nd ed CRC Press ISBN X CRCpress com Jump up Beychok M R Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion th ed author published ISBN www air dispersion com Jump up Pearce Fred The Climate Files The Battle for the Truth about Global Warming Guardian Books ISBN p XVIII Jump up Archived copy Archived from the original on December Retrieved January External links edit Media related to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at Wikimedia Commons Official website Records of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the National Archives Record Group National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the Federal Register show v t e Agencies under the United States Department of Commerce United States Department of Commerce seal show v t e Research and development agencies of the federal government of the United States show v t e United States government agencies involved in environmental science show v t e Diver training certification and accreditation organisations Frau beim Tauchen jpg Category List Class article Portal show v t e Richard Nixon Category Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF LCCN n ISNI The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases commonly known as air that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation warming the surface through heat retention greenhouse effect and reducing temperature

extremes between day and night the diurnal temperature variation By volume dry air contains nitrogen oxygen argon carbon dioxide and small amounts of other gases Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor on average around at sea level and over the entire atmosphere Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres The atmosphere has a mass of about × kg three quarters of which is within about km mi ft of the surface The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space The Kármán line at km mi or of Earth's radius is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around km mi Several layers can be distinguished
in the atmosphere based on characteristics such as temperature and composition The study of Earth's atmosphere and its processes is called atmospheric science aerology Early pioneers in the field include Léon Teisserenc de Bort and Richard Assmann Contents hide Composition Structure of the atmosphere Principal layers Exosphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere Other layers Physical properties Pressure and thickness Temperature and speed of sound Density and mass Optical properties Scattering Absorption Emission Refractive index Circulation Evolution of Earth's atmosphere Earliest atmosphere Second atmosphere Third atmosphere Air pollution Images from space See also References External links Composition Main article Atmospheric chemistry Mean atmospheric water vapor The three major constituents of air and therefore of Earth's atmosphere are nitrogen oxygen and argon Water vapor accounts for roughly of the atmosphere by mass The concentration of water vapor a greenhouse gas varies significantly from around ppm by volume in the coldest portions of the atmosphere to as much as by volume in hot humid air masses and concentrations of other atmospheric gases are typically quoted in terms of dry air without water vapor The remaining gases are often referred to as trace gases among which are the greenhouse gases principally carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide and ozone Filtered air includes trace amounts of many other chemical compounds Many substances of natural origin may be present in locally and seasonally variable small amounts as aerosols in an unfiltered air sample including dust of mineral and organic composition pollen and spores sea spray and volcanic ash Various industrial pollutants also may be present as gases or aerosols such as chlorine elemental or in compounds fluorine compounds and elemental mercury vapor Sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide SO may be derived from natural sources or from industrial air pollution Major constituents of dry air by volume krisztina-ventura krystal-de-boor krystal-steal kylee-karr kylee-nash kylie-brooks kylie-channel Gas Volume A Name Formula in ppmv B in Nitrogen N Oxygen O Argon Ar Carbon dioxide CO Neon Ne Helium He Methane CH Not included in above dry atmosphere Water vapor C H O D D notes A volume fraction is equal to mole fraction for ideal gas only also see volume thermodynamics B ppmv parts per million by volume C Water vapor is about by mass over full atmosphere D Water vapor strongly varies locally Structure of the atmosphere Principal layers In general air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere However temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude and may remain relatively constant or even increase with altitude in some regions see the temperature section below Because the general pattern of the temperature altitude profile is constant and measurable by means of instrumented balloon soundings the temperature behavior provides a useful metric to distinguish atmospheric layers In this way Earth's atmosphere can be divided called atmospheric stratification into five main layers
Excluding the exosphere Earth has four primary layers which are the troposphere stratosphere mesosphere and thermosphere From highest to lowest the five main layers are Exosphere to km to miles Thermosphere to km to miles Mesosphere to km to miles Stratosphere to km to miles Troposphere to km to miles Earth's atmosphere Lower layers of the atmosphere in dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase Layers drawn to scale objects within the layers are not to scale Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer Earth's atmosphere Lower layers of the atmosphere in dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase Layers drawn to scale objects within the layers are not to scale Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer Exosphere Main article Exosphere The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere i e the upper limit of the atmosphere It extends from the exobase which is located at the top of the thermosphere at an altitude of about km above sea level to about km mi ft where it merges into the solar wind This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another Thus the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas and the particles constantly escape into space These free moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind The exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible However the aurora borealis and aurora australis sometimes occur in the lower part of the exosphere where they overlap into the thermosphere The exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth Thermosphere Main article Thermosphere The thermosphere is the second highest layer of Earth's atmosphere It extends from the mesopause which separates it from the mesosphere at an altitude of about km mi ft up to the thermopause at an altitude range of km mi ft The height of the thermopause varies considerably due to changes in solar activity Because the thermopause lies at the lower boundary of the exosphere it is also referred to as the exobase The lower part of the thermosphere from to kilometres to mi above Earth's surface contains the ionosphere The temperature of the thermosphere gradually increases with height Unlike the stratosphere beneath it wherein a temperature inversion is due to the absorption of radiation by ozone the inversion in the thermosphere occurs due to the extremely low density of its molecules The temperature of this layer can rise as high as °C °F though the gas molecules are so far apart that its temperature in the usual sense is not very meaningful The air is so rarefied that an individual molecule of oxygen for example travels an average of kilometre mi ft between collisions with other molecules Although the thermosphere has a high proportion of molecules with high energy it would not feel hot to a human in direct contact because its density is too low to conduct a significant amount of energy to or from the skin This layer is completely cloudless and free of water vapor However non hydrometeorological phenomena such as the aurora borealis and aurora australis are occasionally seen in the thermosphere The International Space Station orbits in this layer between and km and mi Mesosphere Main article Mesosphere The mesosphere is the third highest layer of Earth's atmosphere occupying the region above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere It extends from the stratopause at an altitude of about km mi ft to the mesopause at km mi ft above sea level Temperatures drop with increasing altitude to the mesopause that marks the top of this middle layer of the atmosphere It is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around °C °F K Just below the mesopause the air is so cold that even the very scarce water vapor at this altitude can be sublimated into polar mesospheric noctilucent clouds These are the highest clouds in the atmosphere and may be visible to the naked eye if sunlight reflects off them about an hour or two after sunset or a similar length of time before sunrise They are most readily visible when the Sun is around to degrees below the horizon A type of lightning referred to as either sprites or ELVES occasionally forms far above tropospheric thunderclouds The mesosphere is also the layer where most meteors burn up upon atmospheric entrance It is too high above Earth to be accessible to jet powered aircraft and balloons and too low to permit orbital spacecraft The mesosphere is mainly accessed by sounding rockets and rocket powered aircraft Stratosphere Main article Stratosphere The stratosphere is the second lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere It lies above the troposphere and is separated from it by the tropopause This layer extends from the top of the troposphere at roughly km mi ft above Earth's surface to the stratopause at an altitude of about to km to mi to ft The atmospheric pressure at the top of the stratosphere is roughly the pressure at sea level It contains the ozone layer which is the part of Earth's atmosphere that contains relatively high concentrations of that gas The stratosphere defines a layer in which temperatures rise with increasing altitude This rise in temperature is caused by the absorption of ultraviolet radiation UV radiation from the Sun by the ozone layer which restricts turbulence and mixing Although the temperature may be °C °F K at the tropopause the top of the stratosphere is much warmer and may be near °C The stratospheric temperature profile creates very stable atmospheric conditions so the stratosphere lacks the weather producing air turbulence that is so prevalent in the troposphere Consequently the stratosphere is almost completely free of clouds and other forms of weather However polar stratospheric or morgan-fairlane morrigan-hel moxxie-maddron mulani-rivera mysti-may nadege-arnaud nadia-styles nacreous clouds are occasionally seen in the lower part of this layer of the atmosphere where the air is coldest The stratosphere is the highest layer that can be accessed by jet powered aircraft Troposphere Main article Troposphere The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere It extends from Earth's surface to an average height of about km although this altitude actually varies from about km ft at the poles to km ft at the equator with some variation due to weather The troposphere is bounded above by the tropopause a boundary marked in most places by a temperature inversion i e a layer of relatively warm air above a colder one and in others by a zone which is isothermal with height Although variations do occur the temperature usually declines with increasing altitude in the troposphere because the troposphere is mostly heated through energy transfer from the surface Thus the lowest part of the troposphere i e Earth's surface is typically the warmest section of the troposphere This promotes vertical mixing hence the origin of its name in the Greek word t p tropos meaning turn The troposphere contains roughly of the mass of Earth's atmosphere The troposphere is denser than all its overlying atmospheric layers because a larger atmospheric weight sits on top of the troposphere and causes it to be most severely compressed Fifty percent of the total mass of the atmosphere is located in the lower km ft of the troposphere Nearly all atmospheric water vapor or moisture is found in the troposphere so it is the layer where most of Earth's weather takes place It has basically all the weather associated cloud genus types generated by active wind circulation although very tall cumulonimbus thunder clouds can penetrate the tropopause from below and rise into the lower part of the stratosphere Most conventional aviation activity takes place in the troposphere and it is the only layer that can be accessed by propeller driven aircraft Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting in the thermosphere Because of the angle of the photo it appears to straddle the stratosphere and mesosphere that actually lie more than km below The orange layer is the troposphere which gives way to the whitish stratosphere and then the blue mesosphere Other layers Within the five principal layers that are largely determined by temperature several secondary layers may be distinguished by other properties The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere In this layer ozone concentrations are about to parts per million which is much higher than in the lower atmosphere but still very small compared to the main components of the atmosphere It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about km mi ft though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically About of the ozone in Earth's atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere The ionosphere is a region of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation It is responsible for auroras During daytime hours it stretches from to km to mi to ft and includes the mesosphere thermosphere and parts of the exosphere However ionization in the mesosphere largely ceases during the night so auroras are normally seen only in the thermosphere and lower exosphere The ionosphere forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere It has practical importance because it influences for example radio propagation on Earth The homosphere and heterosphere are defined by whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed The surface based homosphere includes the troposphere stratosphere mesosphere and the lowest part of the thermosphere where the chemical composition of the atmosphere does not depend on molecular weight because the gases are mixed by turbulence This relatively homogeneous layer ends at the turbopause found at about km mi ft the very edge of space itself as accepted by the FAI which places it about km mi ft above the mesopause Above this altitude lies the heterosphere which includes the exosphere and most of the thermosphere Here the chemical composition varies with altitude This is because
the distance that particles can move without colliding with one another is large compared with the size of motions that cause mixing This allows the gases to stratify by molecular weight with the heavier ones such as oxygen and nitrogen present only near the bottom of the heterosphere The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen the lightest element clarification needed The planetary boundary layer is the part of the troposphere that is closest to Earth's surface and is directly affected by it mainly through turbulent diffusion During the day the planetary boundary layer usually is well mixed whereas at night it becomes stably stratified with weak or intermittent mixing The depth of the planetary boundary layer ranges from as little as about metres ft on clear calm nights to m ft or more during the afternoon in dry regions The average temperature of the atmosphere at Earth's surface is °C °F K or °C °F K depending on the reference Physical properties Comparison of the US Standard Atmosphere graph of geometric altitude against air density pressure the speed of sound and temperature with approximate altitudes of various objects Pressure and thickness Main article Atmospheric pressure The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined by the International Standard Atmosphere as pascals Torr psi mmHg This is sometimes referred to as a unit of standard atmospheres atm Total atmospheric mass is × kg × lb about less than would be inferred from the average sea level pressure and Earth's area of megahectares this portion being displaced by Earth's mountainous terrain Atmospheric pressure is the total weight of the air above unit area at the point where the pressure is measured Thus air pressure varies with location and weather If the entire mass of the atmosphere had a uniform density from sea level it would terminate abruptly at an altitude of km ft It actually decreases exponentially with altitude dropping by half every km ft or by a factor of e every km ft the average scale height of greta-milos guia-lauri-filzi gwenda-farnel hare-krane harley-raine hayley-jade the atmosphere below km mi ft However the atmosphere is more accurately modeled with a customized equation for each layer that takes gradients of temperature molecular composition solar radiation and gravity into account In summary the mass of Earth's atmosphere is distributed approximately as follows is below km ft is below km ft is below km mi ft the Kármán line By international convention this marks the beginning of space where human travelers are considered astronauts By comparison the summit of Mt Everest is at m ft commercial airliners typically cruise between km ft and km ft where the thinner air improves fuel economy weather balloons reach km ft and above and the highest X flight in reached km ft Even above the Kármán line significant atmospheric effects such as auroras still occur Meteors begin to glow in this region though the larger ones may not burn up until they penetrate more deeply The various layers of Earth's ionosphere important to HF radio propagation begin below km and extend beyond km By comparison the International Space Station and Space Shuttle typically orbit at km within the F layer of the ionosphere where they encounter enough atmospheric drag to require reboosts every few months Depending on solar activity satellites can experience noticeable atmospheric drag at altitudes as high as km Temperature and speed of sound Main articles Atmospheric temperature and Speed of sound These images show temperature trends in two thick layers of the atmosphere as measured by a series of satellite based instruments between January and December The measurements were taken by Microwave Sounding Units and Advanced Microwave Sounding Units flying on a series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA weather satellites The instruments record microwaves emitted from oxygen molecules in the atmosphere Source The division of the atmosphere into layers mostly by reference to temperature is discussed above Temperature decreases with altitude starting at sea level but variations in this trend begin above km where the temperature stabilizes through a large vertical distance through the rest of the troposphere In the stratosphere starting above about km the temperature increases with height due to heating within the ozone layer caused by capture of significant ultraviolet radiation from the Sun by the dioxygen and ozone gas in this region Still another region of increasing temperature with altitude occurs at very high altitudes in the aptly named thermosphere above km Because in an ideal gas of constant composition the speed of sound depends only on temperature and not on the gas pressure or density the speed of sound in the atmosphere with altitude takes on the form of the complicated temperature profile see illustration to the right and does not mirror altitudinal changes in density or pressure Density and mass Temperature and mass density against altitude from the NRLMSISE standard atmosphere model the eight dotted lines in each decade are at the eight cubes Main article Density of air The density of air at sea level is about kg m g L g cm Density is not measured directly but is calculated from measurements of temperature pressure and humidity using the equation of state for air a form of the ideal gas law Atmospheric density decreases as the altitude increases This variation can be approximately modeled using the barometric formula More sophisticated models are used to predict orbital decay of satellites The average mass of the atmosphere is about quadrillion × tonnes or the mass of Earth According to the American National Center for Atmospheric Research The total mean mass of the atmosphere is × kg with an annual range due to water vapor of or × kg depending on whether surface pressure or water vapor data are used somewhat smaller than the previous estimate The mean mass of water vapor is estimated as × kg and the dry air mass as ± × kg Optical properties This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed October Learn how and when to remove this template message See also Sunlight Solar radiation or sunlight is the energy Earth receives from the Sun Earth also emits radiation back into space but at longer wavelengths that we cannot see Part of the incoming and emitted radiation is absorbed or reflected by the atmosphere Scattering Main article Scattering When light passes through Earth's atmosphere photons interact with it through scattering If the light does not interact with the atmosphere it is called direct radiation and is what you see if you were to look directly at the Sun Indirect radiation is light that has been scattered in the atmosphere For example on an overcast day when you cannot see your shadow there is no direct radiation reaching you it has all been scattered As another example due to a phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering shorter blue wavelengths scatter more easily than longer red wavelengths This is why the sky looks blue you are seeing scattered blue light This is also why sunsets are red Because the Sun is close to the horizon the Sun's rays pass through more atmosphere than normal to reach your eye Much of the blue light has been scattered out leaving the red light in a sunset Absorption Main article Absorption electromagnetic radiation Different molecules absorb different wavelengths of radiation For example O and O absorb almost all wavelengths shorter than nanometers Water H O absorbs many wavelengths above nm When a molecule absorbs a photon it increases the energy of the molecule This heats the atmosphere but the atmosphere also cools by emitting radiation as discussed below Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance or opacity to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation including visible light The combined absorption spectra of the gases in the atmosphere leave windows of low opacity allowing the transmission of only certain bands of light The optical window runs from around nm ultraviolet C up into the range humans can see the visible spectrum commonly called light at roughly nm and continues to the infrared to around nm There are also infrared and radio windows that transmit some infrared and radio waves at longer wavelengths For example the radio window runs from about one centimeter to about eleven meter waves Emission Main article Emission electromagnetic radiation Emission is the opposite of absorption it is when an object emits radiation Objects tend to emit amounts and wavelengths of radiation depending on their black body emission curves therefore hotter objects tend to emit more radiation with shorter wavelengths Colder objects emit less radiation with longer wavelengths For example the Sun is approximately K °C °F its radiation peaks near nm and is visible to the human eye Earth is approximately K °C °F so its radiation peaks near nm and is much too long to be visible to humans Because of its temperature the atmosphere emits infrared radiation For example on clear nights Earth's surface cools down faster than on cloudy nights This is because clouds H O are strong absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation This is also why it becomes colder at night at higher elevations The greenhouse effect is directly related to this absorption and emission effect Some gases in the atmosphere absorb and emit infrared radiation but do not interact with sunlight in the visible spectrum Common examples of these are CO and H O Refractive index The refractive index of air is close to but just greater than Systematic variations in refractive index can lead to the bending of light rays over long optical paths One example is that under some circumstances observers onboard ships can see other vessels just over the horizon because light is refracted in the same direction as the curvature of Earth's surface The refractive index of air depends on temperature giving rise to refraction effects when the temperature gradient is large An example of such effects is the mirage See also Scintillation astronomy Circulation Main article Atmospheric circulation An idealised view of three large circulation cells Atmospheric circulation is the large scale movement of air through the troposphere and the means with ocean circulation by which heat is distributed around Earth The large scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year but the basic structure remains fairly constant because it is determined by Earth's rotation rate and the difference in solar radiation between the equator and poles Evolution of Earth's atmosphere See also History of Earth and Paleoclimatology Earliest atmosphere The first atmosphere consisted of gases in the solar nebula primarily hydrogen There were probably simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn notably water vapor methane and ammonia As the solar nebula dissipated these gases escaped partly driven off by the solar wind Second atmosphere Outgassing from volcanism supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids produced the next atmosphere consisting largely of nitrogen plus carbon dioxide
and inert liliane-gray liliane-lemieuvre lili-marlene lily-gilder lily-labeau gases A major part of carbon dioxide emissions soon dissolved in water and built up carbonate sediments clarification needed Researchers have found water related sediments dating from as early as billion years ago About billion years ago nitrogen formed the major part of the then stable second atmosphere An influence of life has to be taken into account rather soon in the history of the atmosphere because hints of early life forms appear as early as billion years ago How Earth at that time maintained a climate warm enough for liquid water and life if the early Sun put out lower solar radiance than today is a puzzle known as the faint young Sun paradox The geological record however shows a continually relatively warm surface during the complete early temperature record of Earth with the exception of one cold glacial phase about billion years ago In the late Archean Eon an oxygen containing atmosphere began to develop apparently produced by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria see Great Oxygenation Event which have been found as
stromatolite fossils from billion years ago The early basic carbon isotopy isotope ratio proportions strongly suggests conditions similar to the current and that the fundamental features of the carbon cycle became established as early as billion years ago Ancient sediments in the Gabon dating from between about and million years ago provide a record of Earth's dynamic oxygenation evolution These fluctuations in oxygenation were likely driven by the Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion Third atmosphere Oxygen content of the atmosphere over the last billion years This diagram in more detail The constant re arrangement of continents by plate tectonics influences the long term evolution of the atmosphere by transferring carbon dioxide to and from large continental carbonate stores Free oxygen did not exist in the atmosphere until about billion years ago during the Great Oxygenation Event and its appearance is indicated by the end of the banded iron formations Before this time any oxygen produced by photosynthesis was consumed

by oxidation of reduced materials notably iron Molecules of free oxygen did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until the rate of production of oxygen began to exceed the availability of reducing materials that removed oxygen This point signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere O showed major variations until reaching a steady state of more than by the end of the Precambrian The following time span from million years ago to the present day is the Phanerozoic Eon during the earliest period of which the Cambrian oxygen requiring metazoan life forms began to appear The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere has fluctuated over the last million years reaching a peak of about around million years ago significantly higher than today's Two main processes govern changes in the atmosphere Plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere releasing oxygen Breakdown of pyrite and volcanic eruptions release sulfur into the atmosphere which oxidizes and hence reduces the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere However volcanic eruptions also release carbon dioxide which plants can convert to oxygen The exact cause of the variation of the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere is not known Periods with much oxygen in the atmosphere are associated with rapid development of animals Today's atmosphere contains oxygen which is high enough for this rapid development of animals File Watching the Earth Breathe ogv Play media This animation shows the buildup of tropospheric CO in the Northern Hemisphere with a maximum around May The maximum in the vegetation cycle follows occurring in the late summer Following the peak in vegetation the drawdown of atmospheric CO due to photosynthesis is apparent particularly over the boreal forests The scientific consensus is that the anthropogenic greenhouse gases currently accumulating in the atmosphere are the main cause of global warming Air pollution Main article Air pollution Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to organisms Stratospheric ozone depletion is caused by air pollution chiefly from chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone depleting substances Images from space On October NASA started a website containing daily images of the full sunlit side of Earth on http epic gsfc nasa gov The images are taken from the Deep Space Climate Observatory DSCOVR and show Earth as it rotates during a day Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere giving Earth a blue halo when seen from space The geomagnetic storms cause beautiful displays of aurora across the atmosphere Limb view of Earth's atmosphere Colors roughly denote the layers of the atmosphere This image shows the Moon at the centre with the limb of Earth near the bottom transitioning into the orange colored troposphere The troposphere ends abruptly at the tropopause which appears in the image as the sharp boundary between the orange and blue colored atmosphere The silvery blue noctilucent clouds extend far above Earth's troposphere Earth's atmosphere backlit by the Sun in an eclipse observed from deep space onboard Apollo in See also Aerial perspective Air classical element Air glow Airshed Atmosphere for information on atmospheres in general Atmospheric dispersion modeling Atmospheric electricity Atmospheric models Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM in the U S Atmospheric stratification Aviation Biosphere Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Compressed air COSPAR international reference atmosphere CIRA Environmental impact of aviation Global dimming Historical temperature record Hydrosphere Hypermobility travel Kyoto Protocol Leaching agriculture Lithosphere Standard Dry Air U S Standard Atmosphere Warm period Water vapor in Earth's atmosphere Ozone layer Jupiter rd spot jpgAtmosphere portal Aegopodium podagraria ies jpgEnvironment portal References Jump up Zimmer Carl October Earth's Oxygen A Mystery Easy to Take for Granted New York Times Retrieved October Jump up Lide David R Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Boca Raton FL CRC Jump up Ultraviolet radiation in the solar system By Manuel Vázquez Arnold Hanslmeier Jump up to a b Wallace John M and Peter V Hobbs Atmospheric Science An Introductory Survey Elsevier Second Edition ISBN Chapter Jump up Trace Gases Ace mmu ac uk Archived from the original on October Retrieved Jump up Source for figures Carbon dioxide NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory updated Methane IPCC TAR table updated to The NASA total was ppmv over and CO was increased here by ppmv To normalize N should be reduced by about ppmv and O by about ppmv Jump up Vaughan Adam Global carbon dioxide levels break ppm milestone The Guardian ISSN Retrieved Jump up Zell Holly Earth's Upper Atmosphere NASA Retrieved Jump up to a b Randy Russell The Thermosphere Retrieved Jump up to a b The height of the tropopause Das uwyo edu Retrieved Jump up Ahrens C Donald Essentials of Meteorology Published by Thomson Brooks Cole Jump up States Robert J Gardner Chester S January Thermal Structure of the Mesopause Region km at °N Latitude Part I Seasonal Variations Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences Bibcode JAtS S doi < TSOTMR> CO Jump up Joe Buchdahl Atmosphere Climate Environment Information Programme Ace mmu ac uk Archived from the original on Retrieved Jump up Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences stratopause Retrieved Jump up Barry R G Chorley R J Atmosphere Weather and Climate London Menthuen Co Ltd p Jump up Tyson P D Preston Whyte R A The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa Second Edition Oxford Oxford University Press p Jump up McGraw Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science Technology Troposphere It contains about four fifths of the mass of the whole atmosphere Jump up ISS E caption NASA Retrieved September Jump up ''homosphere'' AMS Glossary Amsglossary allenpress com Archived from the original on September Retrieved Jump up Earth's Atmosphere Archived from the original on Jump up NASA Earth Fact Sheet Nssdc gsfc nasa gov Archived from the original on October Retrieved Jump up Global ebony-ayes edina-blond edita-ungerova edwige-faillel eileen-wells elaine-southern Surface Temperature Anomalies Archived from the original on Jump up Earth's Radiation Balance and Oceanic Heat Fluxes Archived from the original on Jump up Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Control Run PDF Jump up Geometric altitude vs temperature pressure density and the speed of sound derived from the U S Standard Atmosphere Jump up The Mass of the Atmosphere A Constraint on Global Analyses Ams allenpress com Retrieved Jump up Lutgens Frederick K and Edward J Tarbuck The Atmosphere Prentice Hall th ed pp ISBN Jump up Atmospheric Temperature Trends Image of the Day Earthobservatory nasa gov Retrieved Jump up to a b Zahnle K Schaefer L Fegley B Earth's Earliest Atmospheres Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology a doi cshperspect a PMC Freely accessible PMID Jump up B Windley The Evolving Continents Wiley Press New York Jump up J Schopf Earth's Earliest Biosphere Its Origin and Evolution Princeton University Press Princeton N J Jump up Timothy W Lyons Christopher T Reinhard Noah J Planavsky Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago Nature Bibcode Natur L doi nature PMID Jump up Christopher R Scotese Back to Earth History Summary Chart for the Precambrian Paleomar Project Jump up Peter Ward Out of Thin Air Dinosaurs Birds and Earth's Ancient Atmosphere Jump up Summary for Policymakers PDF Climate Change The Physical Science Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change February Jump up Starting from Pollution Definition from the Merriam Webster Online Dictionary Jump up Northon Karen Daily Views of Earth Available on New NASA Website NASA Retrieved External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Earth's atmosphere 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